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Table 3 Sociodemographic, functional, clinical and neuropsychological characteristics of the participants according to cognitive impairment (CI).

From: Prevalence of cognitive impairment in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area: DERIVA study

  Healthy subjects
N (%)
Subjects
with CI
N (%)
p
Number of subjects = 327 265(81.0) 62 (19.0)  
Age # 75.46 ± 6.83 80.15 ± 8.18 <0.001
Male 75.26 ± 6.52 80.00 ± 7.22 0.013
Female 75.58 ± 7.04 80.19 ± 8.50 <0.001
Sex, n (%)    0.018
Male 102 (87.90) 14 (12.1)  
Female 163 (77.30) 48 (22.7)  
Years of education # 8.77 ± 2.77 6.93 ± 2.81 <0.001
Educational level, n (%)    <0.001
   Iliterate 68 (66.0) 35 (34.00)  
   Primariy-Secondary education 152 (87.90) 21 (12.1)  
   Higher education 45 (91.8) 4 (8.2)  
Regular occupation in his/her life, n (%)    0.137
   Housewife 68 (74.70) 23 (25.30)  
   Full-time job 174 (84.10) 33 (15.90)  
   Others 8 (88.90) 1 (11.1)  
Living with his/her partner, n (%) 158 (86.30) 25 (13.7) 0.007
Number of alive children (Mean ± SD) 2.41 ± 1.87 2.09 ± 1.99 0.265
Living with someone, n (%)    0.065
   Alone 56 (90.30) 6 (9.70)  
   With one relative/friend 149 (81.0) 35 (19.00)  
   With at least with 2 people 47 (75.80) 15 (24.20)  
   With more than 2 people 4 (57.10) 3 (42.90)  
Functionals    
Activities of daily living (Katz Index):    <0.001
   All preserved 120 (45.30) 14 (22.60)  
   Needs help on one activity 49 (18.10) 10 (16.10)  
   Needs help on bathing and other activity 1 (0.40) 1 (1.60)  
   Needs help on 6 activities 0 (0.00) 2 (3.20)  
   Needs help on at least 2 activities, but not classifiable on previous categories 95 (35.80) 35 (56.50)  
Clinicals    
   Depression 30 (11.30) 17 (27.40) 0.001
   Insomnia 41 (15.50) 17 (27.40) 0.027
   Taking medicine for depression 28 (10.6) 17 (27.40) 0.001
   Taking medicine for insomnia 38 (14.30) 15 (24.20) 0.058
   Hypertension 119 (45.20) 22 (35.50) 0.163
   Dyslipidemia 12 (4.50) 5 (8.10) 0.259
   Diabetes Mellitus 47 (17.70) 18 (29.90) 0.045
   Charlson comorbidity Index (by age) 3.90 ± 1.46 4.50 ± 1.23 0.004
Neuropsychologicals    
   MMSE (0-30)# 27.30 ± 2.05 19.12 ± 4.74 <0.001
   MMSE    <0.001
   0-13 0 (0.00) 5 (8.10)  
   14-23 3 (1.10) 43 (69.40)  
   24-28 162 (61.10) 3 (4.80)  
   >28 81 (30.60) 0 (0.00)  
   Benton temporal orientation test 5.16 ± 15.96 38.00 ± 35.66 <0.001
   Clock drawing test# 5.97 ± 1.52 3.91 ± 2.35 <0.001
   Category Fluency# 15.90 ± 5.04 9.45 ± 4.75 <0.001
   7 Minute Screen (Total)# 48.82 ± 14.48 67.38 ± 31.87 <0.001
  1. CI: cognitive impairment (CIND or dementia); MMSE: Minimental State Examination.
  2. #: Mean ± Standard deviation
  3. p: Statistically significant differences between the two groups
  4. MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination score.