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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: An olfactory ‘stress test’ may detect preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

  NCn= 29 CIn= 13 ADn= 14 Significancen= 56
Age 74.0 (6.6) 77.1 (5.6) 75.3 (4.6) F(2,53) = 1.3, P = 0.28
Female n, (%) 20 (69) 7 (54) 4 (29) χ(2) 2 =6.2, P = 0.04
Education y (SD) 10.6 (3.1) 11.3 (3.3) 11.1 (2.6) F(2,53) = 0.33, P = 0.77
MMSE (SD) 29.0 (1.6) 27.6 (2.4) 23.6 (4.0) F(2,53) = 21.0, P < 0.001, NC, CI > AD
ARCSg 107.2 (9.3) 84.7 (10.8) 57.2 (21.1) F(2,53) = 66.2,P < 0.001, NC > CI > AD
Mem 104.0 (11.5) 72.1 (19.9) 60.4 (12.9) F(2,53) = 52.7,P < 0.001, NC > CI, AD
UPSIT_20 14.3 (2.6) 14.6 (2.9) 10.4 (2.7) F(2,53) = 11.5, P < 0.001, NC, CI > AD
AE 0.28 (2.15) −2.77 (2.71) −2.43 (1.45) F(2,53) = 12.5, P < 0.001, NC > CI, AD
LHCV 1819 (370) 1410 (363) 1385 (293) F(2,48) = 9.1, P < 0.001, NC > CI, AD
  1. Numbers shown represent mean (SD). NC: Normal Control; CI: Cognitive Impairment; AD: Alzheimer’s Disease; ARCSg: Scaled global score on the Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen (ARCS); Mem: Scaled memory domain score on the ARCS; UPSIT_20: Score on 20 items of the 40 item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test; AE: Atropine Effect; LHCV: Left hippocampal volume adjusted for intracranial volume (cubic mm).