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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of COI patients and normal controls

From: Structural and cognitive deficits in chronic carbon monoxide intoxication: a voxel-based morphometry study

  Patients with chronic COI Normal group F p value
Non-DE group DE group All patients
Definition without DE with DE Chronic COI Healthy control   
Number of cases 11 11 22 15   
Sex (n = men/women) 4/7 3/8 7/15 7/8   
Age (years) 40.55 ± 9.45 41.64 ± 9.47 41.09 ± 9.25 36.27 ± 10.41 2.193 0.148
Education 13.00 ± 1.70 # 12.25 ± 2.44 § 12.67 ± 2.03 15.20 ± 1.47 16.213 0.000
Duration of follow-up (month) 27.73 ± 13.66 22.36 ± 16.82 25.05 ± 15.20 -   
Conventional MRI findings during the acute stage (n = normal/basal ganglia/WM lesions) 6/0/0 3/7/4 9/7/4 -   
COHb% during the acute stage 12.50 ± 13.02 22.8 ± 17.60 15.95 ± 15.03 -   
Total intracranial volume (TIV) (cm 3 ) 1459.26 ± 136.37 1469.58 ± 148.12 1464.42 ± 139.04 1473.29 ± 157.60 0.135 0.715
Gray matter (GM) 670.41 ± 56.26 662.79 ± 69.09 666.60 ± 61.61 683.34 ± 65.58 0.034 0.856
White matter (WM) 490.27 ± 54.82 498.18 ± 54.61 494.22 ± 53.55 495.54 ± 53.09 0.086 0.771
WCST       
Perseverative response (PR) 17.60 ± 17.20 17.00 ± 14.92 17.33 ± 15.76 6.93 ± 3.56 3.705 0.064
Perseverative error (PE) 14.80 ± 12.43 14.25 ± 11.76 14.56 ±11.78 6.73 ± 3.10 3.943 0.057
Non-perseverative error (NPE) 9.30 ± 3.62 10.00 ± 2.73 9.61 ±3.18 7.27 ± 3.71 2.923 0.098
Percent conceptual level response 49.85 ± 23.07 # 52.35 ± 22.75 50.96 ±22.29 71.98 ± 13.29 # 7.245 0.012 *
Completed categories 2.40 ± 1.51 2.13 ± 1.36 2.28 ±1.41 3.73 ± 1.33 4.069 0.053
Failure to maintain set 0.40 ± 0.70 0.63 ± 0.74 0.50 ± 0.71 0.47 ± 0.74 2.023 0.166
WAIS       
Picture completion 13.80 ± 3.77 13.13 ± 5.84 13.50 ±4.66 17.93 ±3.43 4.766 0.038 *
Digit symbol 65.60 ± 20.10 # 60.50 ± 16.01 § 63.33 ±18.06 92.20 ± 14.90 10.475 0.003 **
Symbol search 28.30 ± 6.95 # 22.88 ± 14.20 § 25.89 ±10.78 40.00 ± 8.13 6.765 0.015 *
Matrix reasoning 14.00 ± 4.62 12.13 ± 4.26 13.17 ±4.44 17.40 ± 6.13 0.339 0.565
  1. Age and education data were compared by ANOVA. TIV, GM, and WM data were compared by ANCOVA after controlling for age and sex.
  2. NP data (WAIS and WCST) were compared by ANCOVA after controlling for age, sex, and education.
  3. Data are presented as mean ± SD.
  4. F and p represent the comparison between all COI patients vs. the normal control group.
  5. #Significant differences between the normal group and the non-DE group in the post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni’s correction.
  6. §Significant differences between the normal group and the DE-group in the post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni’s correction.
  7. Boldfaced values represent significant differences (p ≤ 0.05).
  8. Abbreviations: WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; WCST Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.
  9. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.001.