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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of study cohort grouped by JVR status (i.e. positive or negative) for all groups aggregated together

From: Jugular venous reflux and brain parenchyma volumes in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

Variable JVR negative JVR positive Significance p value
Number of subjects, n (%) 23 (34.3) 44 (65.7) n.a.
Female gender, n (%) 9 (39.1) 16 (36.4) 0.824*
Age in years, mean (SD) 81.6 (3.3) 81.5 (6.2) 0.740
Years of education, mean (SD) 11.8 (3.8) 11.5 (3.7) 0.720
Disease classification, n (%)    0.106*
 Control 5 (21.7) 13 (29.5)  
 MCI 9 (39.1) 24 (54.5)
 AD 9 (39.1) 7 (15.9)
MMSE, mean (SD) 24.0 (4.1) 26.0 (3.1) 0.065
Hypertension, n (%) 12 (52.2) 28 (63.6) 0.364*
Diabetes, n (%) 6 (26.1) 6 (13.6) 0.207*
Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 5 (21.7) 8 (18.2) 0.727*
Smoking, n (%) 0 (0.0) 2 (4.5) 0.299*
Normalized WB volume, mean (SD) 1286.6 (58.3) 1327.9 (54.8) 0.014
Normalized GM volume, mean (SD) 692.6 (41.0) 726.1 (40.0) 0.002
Normalized WM volume, mean (SD) 594.0 (32.6) 601.8 (32.5) 0.531
CSF volume 380.5 (58.7) 362.0 (60.9) 0.253
  1. MCI Mild cognitive impairment, AD Alzheimer’s disease, JVR Jugular venous reflux, MMSE Mini-mental state examination, WB Whole brain, GM Gray matter, WM White matter, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid.
  2. All volumes are expressed in milliliters.
  3. n.a. Not applicable, SD Standard deviation, n Number, % - Percentage.
  4. p value determined by 2-tailed Mann Whitney U-test unless otherwise stated.
  5. *p value determined using chi square test.