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Table 2 Five Zamboni criteria distributed in both subject groups

From: Cross-sectional area variations of internal jugular veins during supine head rotation in multiple sclerosis patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a prospective diagnostic controlled study with duplex ultrasound investigation

Colour Doppler criteria Relapsing remitting Secondary progressive Primary progressive Whole MS Healthy controls
(N, %) (N, %) (N, %) (N, %) (N, %)
1. Reflux in IJVs and/or VVs with the head at 0° and +90° or reflux in one position with blocked flow in the other 91/313 58/313 29/313 178/313 18/298
29.1% 18.5% 9.3% 56.9% 6.0%
2. Reflux in the deep cerebral veins 162/313 88/313 49/313 299/313 64/298
51.8% 22.1% 15.6% 95.5% 21.5%
3. High resolution B-mode evidence of proximal IJV malformations 162/313 90/313 42/313 294/313 39/298
51.8% 28.8% 13.3% 93.9% 13.1%
4. Flow not Doppler detectable in the IJV and/or VV at 0° and 90° 22/313 28/313 18/313 68/313 0/298
7.0% 8.9% 5.7% 21.7% 0%
5. ΔCSA in the IJV ≤ 0 20/313 29/313 13/313 62/313 0/298
6.4% 9.3% 4.1% 19.8% 0%