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Table 2 Rate ratios 1 and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for subarachnoid haemorrhage in people with selected immune-mediated diseases, compared with the control cohort 2

From: Risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in people admitted to hospital with selected immune-mediated diseases: record-linkage studies

Immune mediated disease Observed Rate ratio (95% CI) P value
Addison’s disease 25 2.01 (1.3-2.97) 0.001*
Ankylosing spondylitis 46 1.64 (1.2-2.19) 0.001*
Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia 16 1.99 (1.14-3.23) 0.009
Chronic active hepatitis 1 0.18 (0-0.99) 0.08
Coeliac disease 72 1.04 (0.82-1.32) 0.76
Crohn’s disease 159 1.29 (1.1-1.51) 0.001*
Dermatomyositis 3 1.27 (0.26-3.7) 0.93
Diabetes mellitus 534 1.21 (1.11-1.33) <0.001*
Goodpasture’s syndrome 2 2.31 (0.28-8.34) 0.50
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 10 0.97 (0.46-1.78) 0.96
Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura 62 2.42 (1.86-3.11) <0.001*
Multiple sclerosis 115 1.09 (0.9-1.31) 0.41
Myasthenia gravis 12 0.93 (0.48-1.62) 0.91
Myxoedema 1283 1.15 (1.09-1.22) <0.001*
Pemphigoid 16 1.29 (0.74-2.1) 0.38
Pemphigus 3 1.35 (0.28-3.94) 0.85
Pernicious anaemia 96 1.3 (1.05-1.59) 0.013
Polyarteritis nodosa 4 1.79 (0.49-4.6) 0.40
Polymyositis 8 1.81 (0.78-3.56) 0.15
Primary biliary cirrhosis 30 2.21 (1.49-3.16) <0.001*
Psoriasis 156 1.34 (1.14-1.57) <0.001*
Rheumatoid arthritis 640 1.48 (1.36-1.6) <0.001*
Scleroderma 25 1.84 (1.19-2.72) 0.003
Sjogren’s syndrome 39 1.69 (1.2-2.31) 0.001*
Systematic lupus erythematosus 108 3.76 (3.08-4.55) <0.001*
Thyrotoxicosis 202 1.38 (1.19-1.58) <0.001*
Ulcerative colitis 198 1.00 (0.87-1.16) 0.99
  1. 1Adjusted for sex, age in 5-year bands, time-period in single calendar years, region of residence, and deprivation score associated with patients’ local authority area of residence in quintiles. The rate ratios are calculated as the ratio of the observed/expected number in the cohort for each immune-mediated disease to the observed/expected numbers in the reference cohort as calculated in the analysis undertaken for each of the individual disease (data not shown).
  2. 2Conditions used in reference cohort: appendicectomy, squint, otitis externa, otitis media, haemorrhoids, deflected nasal septum, nasal polyp, impacted tooth and other disorders of teeth, inguinal hernia, in-growing toenail and other diseases of nail, sebaceous cyst, internal derangement of knee, bunion, dislocations, sprains and strains, superficial injury and contusion.
  3. *Significant P value after full Bonferroni correction = <0.00185.