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Table 2 Characteristics of patients with MS according to CCSVI status

From: Small internal jugular veins with restricted outflow are associated with severe multiple sclerosis: a sonographer-blinded, case–control ultrasound study

Parameter Patients (n =67) Controls (n =21) p
  CCSVI- CCSVI+ CCSVI- CCSVI+  
n (%) 59 (88.1) 8 (11.9) 21(100) 0 (0) 0.1*
Female/male (%) 49.2/50.8 50.0/50.0 33.3/66.7 0/0 ns*
Age at onset (years ± SD) 27.5 ± 7.2 29.1 ± 9.7 - 0.6#
Disease duration (years ± SD) 8.4 ± 5.9 14.4 ± 6.5 - 0.01#
Disease course, n (%)    - 0.12*
CIS 5 (8.5) 0
RR 38 (64.4) 3 (37.5)
CP 16 (27.1) 5 (62.5)
Total 59 (100) 8 (100)
MSSS (mean ± SD) 5.2 ± 2.2 7.4 ± 1.4 - 0.008#
EDSS (mean ± SD) 3.6 ± 2.0 5.85 ± 1.8   0.007#
  1. CCSVI: chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency; CIS: clinically isolated syndrome; RR: relapsing-remitting; CP: chronic progressive (including secondary progressive and primary progressive); MSSS: Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score; EDSS: Expanded Disability Status Scale; * χ 2; # ANOVA; values represent the means ± SD; ns: non-significant.