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Table 2 Distribution of venous hemodynamic criteria among CCSVI positive patients

From: Cognitive impairment and “invisible symptoms” are not associated with CCSVI in MS

  Number of CCSVI positive patients (%)
Criterion III 19 (28.8%)
Criterion II 16 (24.2%)
Criterion I 15 (22.7%)
Criterion V 15 (22.7%)
Criterion IV 1 (1.5%)
  1. Criterion I = Reflux in the IJVs and/or VVs in sitting and supine posture.
  2. Criterion II = Reflux in the DCVs.
  3. Criterion III = High-resolution B-mode evidence of proximal IJV stenoses.
  4. Criterion IV = Flow not Doppler detectable in the IJVs and/or VVs.
  5. Criterion V = Reverted postural control of the main cerebral venous outflow Pathway (Δ CSA).
  6. N number.
  7. IJVs internal jugular veins.
  8. VVs vertebral veins.
  9. DCVs deep cerebral veins.