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Table 1 Summary of the seven studies that investigated the association between osteoporosis (osteopenia) and BPPV

From: Association between osteoporosis and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a systematic review

Study Age range (Mean ± SD) No. of subjects: control Design Percentage female and male Outcomes evaluated Conclusions of authors
Vibert 2003 [15] 50 to 85(69 ± 9.2) 32(BPPV):83(Healthy controls) Case–control study All were Female BMD The apparent correlation between BPPV and osteopenia or osteoporosis
Jang2009 [11] 20 to 69 78(BPPV):117 (Healthy controls) Cohort studies All were Female BMD, The number of canalith repositioning maneuvers, The presence of recurrence Patients with BPPV had lower BMD values compared with control subjects, and patients with low BMD values showed a significant increase in the number of canalith repositioning maneuvers required and the recurrence rate
Jeong2009 [12] 29 to 90 years (59.8 ± 12.5 in test group, 56.3 ± 8.6 in control group) 209(BPPV):202(Healthy controls) Case–control study Female: Male in BPPV Group (142:67), in Control (96:106) BMD Decreased BMD score both in women and in men with BBPV, compared with that in controls.
Mikulec2010 [13] 51 to 80 143(BPPV):117(Controls that with symmetric sensorineural hearing loss and without known vestibular problems) Case–control study All were Female The presence or absence of osteoporosis There was a negative association between BPPV and treated osteoporosis in women aged 51 to 60 years, and a trend towards a negative association for women aged 61–70 years and for the group as a whole. Osteoporosis, or the medication used to treat it, may provide protection against BPPV.
Yamanaka2013 [16] 50 to 88 (63.7 ± 7.40) 39(Recurrence free): 9 (Single recurrence):13(Multiple recurrence) Case–control study All were Female BMD Osteoporosis is a risk factor for BPPV recurrence. The prognosis of BPPV might be clinically predicted by BMD reduction.
Parham2013 [14] 49 to 81 (66.9 ± 1.8) 16(BPPV):13(osteopenia/osteoporosis) Cohort studies All were Female BMD. Calcium, Vit D, 25(OH)D3, and Serum Markers of Bone Turnover (sNTX, P1NP) Postmenopausal women with BPPV have a high prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis, and postmenopausal women with osteopenia/osteoporosis have higher than expected prevalence of BPPV. Levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover correlate with presence of BPPV but not Ca or Vit D.
Stefano2013 [17] 65 to 95(72.9 ± 6.14) 1092(BPPV):13(BPPV with osteopenia/osteoporosis) Multicenter Case–control study Female: Male(685:407) Risk of recurrence Combine with two or more comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthrosis), osteoporosis further increases the risk of relapsing BPPV
  1. SD standard deviation; BMD bone mineral density; CRP canalith-repositioning maneuvers, sNTX amino-terminal telopeptides of collagen; P1NP amino-terminal propeptide of protocollagen type I.