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Table 3 Model II (extended): multiple linear regression with FES(S) scores as the dependent variable in people with Parkinson’s disease, n = 104 a

From: Factors associated with fear of falling in people with Parkinson’s disease

     Adjusted R2
Significant independent variablesb B (95% CI) β P-value Stepwise change Cumulative
Walking difficulties (Walk-12G) −1.543 (−2.118, −0.968) −0.446 0.000 0.642 0.642
Need help from others in daily activities (PADLS) −21.823 (−35.841, −7.806) −0.189 0.003 0.045 0.687
Functional balance (BBS) 0.877 (0.333, 1.422) 0.221 0.002 0.027 0.714
Fatigue (FACIT-F) 0.547 (0.103, 0.991) 0.179 0.016 0.014 0.728
  1. aIndependent variables in the analysis were: need help from others in daily activities (PADLS: dichotomized, 1 = yes), walking difficulties (Walk-12G), fatigue (FACIT-F), age (years), PD-duration (years), falls (1 = yes), near falls (1 = yes), dyskinesia (item 32 UPDRS part IV: dichotomized, 1 = yes), freezing (FOGQsa item 3: dichotomized, 1 = freezing), turning hesitations (FOGQsa item 6: dichotomized, 1 = turning hesitations), pain (dichotomized, 1 = yes), cognition (MMSE), motor symptoms (UPDRS III), Balance (BBS), 10-meters walk test (comfortable gait speed), Nutt Retropulsion test (dichotomized, 1 = abnormal reactive postural response), self-reported dual-task difficulties (dichotomized, 1 = yes).
  2. bListed by order of entry into the model (forward method).
  3. BBS, Berg balance scale, 0–56 (higher = better); FACIT-F, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale (0–52; higher = better); FES(S), Falls Efficacy Scale (0–130; higher = better); FOGQsa, Freezing of Gait Questionnaire, self-administered version (items are scored 0–4; higher = worse); MMSE, the Mini-Mental State Examination (possible scores, 0–30; higher = better); PADLS, the Parkinson’s disease Activities of Daily Living Scale (1–5; higher = worse; those scoring >2 were categorized as needing help from others in daily activities); PD, Parkinson’s disease; Walk-12G, 12-item generic walking scale (0–42; higher = worse); UPDRS III: motor part of the Unified PD Rating Scale; UPDRS IV: motor complications.
  4. B: regression coefficient; CI: confidence interval; β: standardized regression coefficient.