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Table 2 Distribution of responses to Berlin questionnaire by risk group. (n = 418)

From: Identifying people at high risk for developing sleep apnea syndrome (SAS): a cross-sectional study in a Pakistani population

Questions High-Risk n (%) Lower-Risk n (%) p-value
Do you snore?    
   Yes 42 (100) 62 (16.5) < 0.0001
   No 0 (0.00) 285 (75.8)  
   Don't Know 0 (0.00) 29 (7.71)  
Snoring loudness    
   Loud as breathing 16 (38.1) 47 (72.3) < 0.0001
   Loud as talking 8 (19.0) 14 (21.5)  
   Louder than talking 9 (21.4) 2 (3.08)  
   Very loud 9 (21.4) 2 (3.08)  
Snoring frequency    
   Almost everyday 24 (57.1) 12 (18.8) < 0.0001
   3–4 times/wk 9 (21.4) 6 (9.40)  
   1–2 times/wk 5 (11.9) 14 (21.9)  
   1–2 times/mo 4 (9.5) 19 (29.7)  
   Never or almost never 0 (0.00) 13 (20.3)  
Does your snoring bother other people?    
   Yes 28 (66.7) 16 (24.2) < 0.0001
   No 14 (33.3) 40 (60.6)  
   Don't Know 0 (0.00) 10 (15.2)  
How often your breathing pauses have been noticed?    
   Almost everyday 9 (21.4) 6 (9.10) < 0.0001
   3–4 times/wk 1 (2.40) 1 (1.50)  
   1–2 times/wk 1 (2.40) 0 (0.00)  
   1–2 times/mo 0 (0.00) 7 (10.6)  
   Never or almost never 31 (73.8) 52 (78.8)  
Are you tired after sleeping?    
   Almost everyday 15 (35.7) 45 (12.0) < 0.0001
   3–4 times/wk 4 (9.50) 35 (9.30)  
   1–2 times/wk 5 (11.9) 86 (22.9)  
   1–2 times/mo 2 (4.80) 76 (20.3)  
   Never or almost never 16 (38.1) 133 (35.5)  
Are you tired during wake time?    
   Almost everyday 15 (35.7) 48 (12.9) < 0.0001
   3–4 times/wk 7 (16.7) 39 (10.5)  
   1–2 times/wk 6 (14.3) 85 (22.8)  
   1–2 times/mo 4 (9.50) 90 (24.2)  
   Never or almost never 10 (23.8) 110 (29.6)  
Have you ever fallen asleep while driving?    
   Yes 7 (16.7) 38 (10.3)  
   No 35 (83.8) 332 (89.7)  
Do you have high blood pressure?    
   Yes 14 (33.3) 27 (7.20) < 0.0001
   No 27 (64.3) 339 (90.2)  
   Don't know 1 (2.40) 10 (2.70)  
Body Mass Index    
   Normal (<23 kg/m2) 5 (11.9) 218 (58.0) < 0.0001
   Over weight (23 kg/m2 to less than 27.5 kg/m2) 12 (28.6) 124 (33.0)  
   Obese (≥ 27.5 kg/m2) 25 (59.5) 34 (9.00)