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Table 1 Demographic and test data for healthy elderly individuals (controls) and all patients with aMCI or early dementia in AD

From: The brain structural and cognitive basis of odor identification deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Subgroups patients
    B-SIT SSIT
Characteristics Controls n = 30 Patients n = 18 >50% score n = 6 ≤50% score n = 12 >50% score n = 10 ≤50% score n = 6
Demographic data       
Gender (female/male%) 46.7/53.3 55.6/44.4 66.7/33.3 50.0/50.0 70.0/30.0 16.7/83.3+
Age (years) 67.4 ± 7.6 74.6 ± 6.3** 76.0 ± 7.8 73.8 ± 5.7 76.5 ± 1.3 72.3 ± 5.1
Education (years) 17.1 ± 3.5 15.3 ± 2.5 15.3 ± 1.3 15.3 ± 3.0 14.8 ± 1.9 16.8 ± 3.4
Daily smokers (%) 3.3 5.6 0 8.3 0 0
APOE Ɛ4 genotype (% carriers 1-2 alleles) 20.8 73.3** 75.0 72.7 62.5 83.3
Cognitive tests       
MMSE (max. score 30) 28.7 ± 1.2 25.5 ± 2.5** 26.0 ± 1.7 25.3 ± 2.8 26.0 ± 1.6 25.7 ± 3.0
Ten-word test, total recall (max. score 30) 22.7 ± 3.6 12.5 ± 3.8** 13.2 ± 3.7 12.1 ± 3.9 12.1 ± 3.6 14.0 ± 4.2
Ten-words tests, delayed recall (max. 10) 8.1 ± 1.9 2.2 ± 1.7** 3.2 ± 1.8 1.6 ± 1.4 2.5 ± 1.9 1.8 ± 1.5
RCFT, figure copying 30.9 ± 3.0 26.0 ± 5.1** 24.6 ± 4.6 26.8 ± 5.4 23.9 ± 4.3 29.8 ± 4.4+
RCFT, immediate recall 17.9 ± 5.6 6.3 ± 4.4** 6.2 ± 6.1 6.4 ± 3.5 6.0 ± 4.6 6.8 ± 4.6
RCFT, delayed recall 17.7 ± 5.3 6.9 ± 4.2** 7.2 ± 6.8 6.7 ± 2.0 7.5 ± 4.8 5.9 ± 3.5
Stereognosis (max. score 12) 11.5 ± 0.8 10.2 ± 2.2** 10.2 ± 1.6 10.2 ± 2.6 10.6 ± 1.4 9.5 ± 3.2
Trail Making A (sec) 52.6 ± 20.1 64.7 ± 21.8 61.2 ± 15.9 64.2 ± 24.5 66.0 ± 21.4 66.7 ± 25.7
Trail Making-B (sec) 104.1 ± 37.5 134.0 ± 51.8* 141.0 ± 58.9 127.0 ± 48.3 148.3 ± 47.7 126.3 ± 56.2
Phychophysical mesurements       
B-SIT (12 items) 9.6 ± 2.0 6.6 ± 2.6** 9.8 ± 1.6 5.0 ± 0.7## 7.4 ± 2.6 5.7 ± 2.7
SSIT (16 items) 12.7 ± 2.4 9.4 ± 3.0** 11.3 ± 3.1 8.2 ± 2.3# 11.1 ± 2.1 6.5 ± 1.8+
SSDT (16 items) 9.2 ± 3.3 7.5 ± 3.0 7.8 ± 3.4 7.3 ± 3.0 7.4 ± 2.9 7.6 ± 3.5
  1. Where appropriate, the mean ± SD is shown.
  2. Significant differences using Student's t-test for total group of patients compared to controls: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.005.
  3. Significant differences using Student's t-test for scoring >50% or ≤50% on B-SIT: #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.005.
  4. Significant differences using Student's t-test for scoring >50% or ≤50% on SSIT: +p < 0.05.
  5. B-SIT; Brief Smell Identification Test, SSIT; Sniffin Sticks Identification Test, SSDT; Sniffin Sticks Discrimination Test, MMSE; Mini-Mental State Examination, RCFT; Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test.
  6. Patients have also been divided according to their odor identification (OI) ability.