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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios from competing risks, cumulative incidence regression models for potential risk factors of readmission for infection, gastrointestinal and immobility complications and death one year after incident stroke

From: Temporal trends and risk factors for readmission for infections, gastrointestinal and immobility complications after an incident hospitalisation for stroke in Scotland between 1997 and 2005

  Readmissions Deaths
Unadjusted HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI) Unadjusted HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)
Age group (years):     
Age 55–64 1.31 (1.18-1.45) 1.23 (1.11-1.36) 1.70 (1.43-2.02) 1.60 (1.35-1.90)
Age 65–74 1.73 (1.58-1.90) 1.58 (1.44-1.73) 3.29 (2.84-3.82) 2.52 (2.17-2.94)
Age 75–84 2.11 (1.94-2.31) 1.87 (1.71-2.05) 6.17 (5.35-7.13) 3.74 (3.23-4.34)
Age 85+ 2.43 (2.21-2.68) 2.08 (1.87-2.31) 11.20 (9.67-12.95) 5.31 (4.55-6.19)
Sex:     
Women 1.09 (1.05-1.15) 1.02 (0.97-1.07) 1.31 (1.25-1.38) 0.95 (0.90-1.00)
Socioeconomic status:     
2 1.07 (0.98-1.16) 1.05 (0.96-1.14) 1.12 (1.02-1.23) 1.11 (1.01-1.22)
3 1.07 (0.99-1.17) 1.06 (0.97-1.15) 1.10 (1.01-1.20) 1.08 (0.99-1.19)
4 1.14 (1.05-1.23) 1.12 (1.03-1.21) 1.06 (0.98-1.16) 1.10 (1.01-1.20)
5 (most deprived) 1.17 (1.09-1.27) 1.16 (1.08-1.26) 0.98 (0.90-1.07) 1.16 (1.06-1.27)
Year of discharge:     
Year 1998 1.03 (0.93-1.14) 1.01 (0.91-1.11) 1.04 (0.94-1.15) 1.00 (0.90-1.11)
Year 1999 1.01 (0.92-1.12) 1.00 (0.90-1.10) 0.96 (0.86-1.07) 0.92 (0.83-1.03)
Year 2000 1.05 (0.95-1.16) 1.01 (0.91-1.12) 0.93 (0.84-1.03) 0.89 (0.80-0.99)
Year 2001 1.11 (1.01-1.22) 1.06 (0.96-1.17) 0.97 (0.87-1.07) 0.92 (0.82-1.02)
Year 2002 1.05 (0.95-1.16) 1.01 (0.92-1.12) 0.88 (0.79-0.98) 0.86 (0.77-0.96)
Year 2003 1.14 (1.03-1.26) 1.10 (0.99-1.21) 0.90 (0.81-1.00) 0.92 (0.82-1.03)
Year 2004 1.10 (1.00-1.21) 1.03 (0.93-1.14) 0.89 (0.79-0.99) 0.96 (0.85-1.07)
Year 2005 1.06 (0.96-1.17) 1.00 (0.90-1.11) 0.89 (0.80-0.99) 0.94 (0.83-1.05)
Comorbidity:     
Diabetes 1.26 (1.18-1.34) 1.17 (1.09-1.25) 1.08 (1.00-1.16) 1.11 (1.03-1.21)
Cancer 1.28 (1.18-1.39) 1.07 (0.98-1.16) 2.60 (2.42-2.78) 2.10 (1.95-2.27)
Respiratory disease 1.57 (1.46-1.68) 1.24 (1.15-1.33) 1.19 (1.10-1.30) 1.07 (0.98-1.17)
Heart failure 1.63 (1.51-1.76) 1.19 (1.10-1.30) 2.07 (1.92-2.23) 1.31 (1.20-1.43)
Peripheral arterial disease 1.30 (1.20-1.42) 1.08 (0.99-1.18) 1.34 (1.22-1.47) 1.27 (1.15-1.39)
Atrial fibrillation 1.18 (1.11-1.26) 0.92 (0.87-0.99) 1.63 (1.53-1.73) 1.16 (1.08-1.24)
Essential hypertension 0.99 (0.95-1.04) 0.91 (0.86-0.96) 0.75 (0.71-0.79) 0.79 (0.74-0.84)
Renal failure 1.69 (1.52-1.89) 1.23 (1.10-1.38) 2.35 (2.12-2.61) 1.67 (1.48-1.88)
Coronary heart disease 1.32 (1.25-1.39) 1.06 (1.00-1.12) 1.28 (1.21-1.35) 1.07 (1.00-1.15)
Rheumatic/Valvular heart disease 1.20 (1.06-1.35) 0.95 (0.83-1.08) 1.38 (1.22-1.57) 1.09 (0.95-1.24)
Depression 1.29 (1.13-1.47) 1.08 (0.94-1.23) 1.18 (1.02-1.37) 0.90 (0.77-1.06)
Parkinsonism 1.50 (1.23-1.81) 1.09 (0.89-1.33) 2.75 (2.34-3.23) 1.42 (1.19-1.69)
Dementia 1.39 (1.26-1.54) 1.06 (0.95-1.18) 2.82 (2.59-3.07) 1.26 (1.15-1.39)
Alcohol misuse 1.47 (1.34-1.60) 1.43 (1.30-1.57) 0.75 (0.66-0.85) 0.98 (0.85-1.12)
Infections 1.74 (1.65-1.83) 1.31 (1.24-1.38) 1.92 (1.81-2.03) 1.20 (1.13-1.28)
Immobility 1.60 (1.51-1.69) 1.23 (1.16-1.30) 1.72 (1.62-1.82) 1.01 (0.95-1.08)
Gastrointestinal 1.86 (1.78-1.95) 1.58 (1.51-1.66) 1.33 (1.26-1.41) 1.04 (0.99-1.11)
Discharge destination:     
Care/Nursing 0.98 (0.92-1.03) 0.73 (0.69-0.78) 5.23 (4.98-5.50) 3.75 (3.54-3.97)
Other 1.14 (0.80-1.64) 0.94 (0.65-1.36) 3.82 (2.83-5.15) 3.12 (2.29-4.25)
Length of stay (days):     
LOS 8-14 1.31 (1.22.1.41) 1.20 (1.11-1.29) 1.18 (1.08-1.30) 0.92 (0.83-1.01)
LOS 15-21 1.42 (1.30-1.55) 1.23 (1.13-1.34) 1.57 (1.42-1.74) 1.02 (0.92-1.14)
LOS 22-28 1.62 (1.48-1.78) 1.37 (1.24-1.51) 1.86 (1.67-2.08) 1.06 (0.94-1.18)
LOS 29+ 1.64 (1.55-1.74) 1.41 (1.32-1.50) 2.52 (2.36-2.71) 1.10 (1.02-1.19)
  1. Note: the reference categories for age group, sex, socioeconomic status, year of discharge, discharge destination and length of stay are <55 years, men, SIMD 1 (least deprived), 1997, home and 1 – 7 days, respectively.