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Table 2 Preadmission use of calcium channel blockers or beta blockers and 30-day mortality estimates following stroke

From: Impact of preadmission treatment with calcium channel blockers or beta blockers on short-term mortality after stroke: a nationwide cohort study

  Calcium channel blocker Beta blocker
Mortality risk, % (95% CI) Mortality rate ratio (95% CI) Mortality risk, % (95% CI) Mortality rate ratio (95% CI)
Unadjusted Adjusted a Unadjusted Adjusted a
Ischemic stroke       
 Non-use 10.3 (10.1-10.5) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 9.8 (9.5-10.0) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Former use 13.1 (11.9-14.3) 1.29 (1.16-1.43) 1.04 (0.94-1.15) 13.0 (11.8-14.2) 1.35 (1.22-1.49) 1.01 (0.91-1.12)
 Current use 12.4 (11.9-13.0) 1.22 (1.15-1.29) 0.99 (0.94-1.05) 13.9 (13.3-14.4) 1.45 (1.38-1.52) 1.01 (0.96-1.07)
  New use 10.1 (9.1-11.1) 0.97 (0.88-1.08) 0.89 (0.80-0.99) 12.6 (11.6-13.6) 1.31 (1.19-1.43) 0.97 (0.88-1.06)
  Long-term use 13.3 (12.6-14.0) 1.31 (1.24-1.39) 1.03 (0.97-1.10) 14.3 (13.7-14.9) 1.50 (1.42-1.58) 1.02 (0.96-1.08)
Intracerebral hemorrhage       
 Non-use 34.1 (33.2-35.0) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 33.3 (32.4-34.3) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Former use 37.5 (32.6-42.9) 1.11 (0.93-1.32) 0.92 (0.77-1.10) 40.6 (35.8-45.8) 1.29 (1.09-1.52) 1.00 (0.84-1.19)
 Current use 41.3 (38.6-44.2) 1.28 (1.16-1.41) 1.05 (0.95-1.16) 41.9 (39.7-44.2) 1.35 (1.25-1.46) 0.95 (0.87-1.04)
  New use 36.6 (31.4-42.5) 1.09 (0.90-1.33) 0.95 (0.78-1.16) 41.7 (37.2-46.6) 1.36 (1.17-1.58) 0.96 (0.81-1.12)
  Long-term use 42.9 (39.7-46.3) 1.35 (1.21-1.50) 1.09 (0.97-1.22) 42.0 (39.5-44.5) 1.35 (1.24-1.47) 0.94 (0.85-1.04)
Subarachnoid hemorrhage       
 Non-use 22.6 (21.3-23.9) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 22.8 (21.6-24.2) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Former use 32.2 (24.4-41.7) 1.51 (1.08-2.11) 1.05 (0.75-1.48) 25.0 (17.4-35.2) 1.12 (0.74-1.69) 0.60 (0.38-0.95)
 Current use 33.0 (28.4-38.0) 1.56 (1.29-1.89) 1.05 (0.85-1.29) 31.6 (27.3-36.3) 1.46 (1.21-1.75) 0.89 (0.72-1.11)
  New use 29.1 (21.0-39.5) 1.38 (0.94-2.02) 0.98 (0.66-1.45) 28.3 (20.5-38.3) 1.24 (0.85-1.81) 0.70 (0.46-1.06)
  Long-term use 34.3 (28.9-40.2) 1.62 (1.31-2.01) 1.06 (0.84-1.34) 32.6 (27.7-38.1) 1.53 (1.25-1.88) 0.92 (0.72-1.17)
  1. aAdjusted for sex, age groups, and the individual comorbidities and comedications listed in Table 1.