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Table 3 Performance in individual neuropsychological tests

From: Decision-making under explicit risk is impaired in multiple sclerosis: relationships with ventricular width and disease disability

Neuropsychological domain/test HCs (n = 20) All MS patients (n = 32) Test RR-1 (n = 13) RR-2 (n = 9) SP (n = 10) Test
Processing speed composite score
SDMT [61] 52.30 (12.34) 44.29 (9.63) t = 2.60 48.31 (8.87) 40.00* (9.24) 42.50 (9.71) F = 3.47
p = 0.01 p = 0.02
PASAT [52,53] 48.80 (10.44) 43.44 (11.06) t = 1.74 48.54 (5.38) 34.67* (12.49) 44.70 (11.31) F = 4.65
p = 0.089 p = 0.006
Forward Digit Span [62] 11.10 (1.92) 9.94 (1.83) t = 2.19 10.38 (1.98) 10.00 (1.50) 9.30 (1.89) F = 2.24
p = 0.033 p = 0.10
Pegboard (Dominant/Non-dominant hand) [63] 27.40 (4.56) 33.95 (9.87) t = 3.24 32.25 (9.29) 32.80 (5.48) 37.19* (13.30) F = 3.35
p = 0.002 p = 0.03
Memory composite score
SRT Immediate [64,65] 53.65 (6.85) 39.09 (10.96) t = 5.32 42.08* (11.62) 39.11* (12.43) 35.20* (8.15) F = 14.31
p < 0.001 p < 0.001
SRT CLTR [64,65] 36.85 (13.14) 18.00 (13.24) t = 5.01 21.00* (14.50) 19.11 (16.44) 13.10* (6.49) F = 13.85
p < 0.001 p < 0.001
SRT Delayed [64,65] 8.10 (2.43) 5.53 (2.55) t = 3.60 6.46 (2.50) 5.11* (2.89) 4.70* (2.11) F = 5.67
p = 0.001 p = 0.005
Executive functions composite score
Tower of Hanoi, Time [60,66] 317.25 (139.78) 384.81 (132.47) t = 1.74 417.67 (118.32) 390.67 (179.25) 340.11(95.56) F = 1.61
p = 0.088 p = 0.20
WCST 64-cards, correct sorts [67] 50.65 (3.88) 47.13 (7.71) t = 2.18 48.92 (8.35) 44.11 (8.42) 47.50 (5.89) F = 2.07
p = 0.034 p = 0.14
WCST 64-cards, perseverative errors [67] 6.45 (2.11) 8.44 (5.65) t = 1.46 7.85 (5.06) 8.44 (4.10) 6.90 (2.92) F = 0.83
p = 0.15 p = 0.48
Backward Digit Span [62] 7.65 (1.79) 6.22 (2.01) t = 2.60 6.77 (1.79) 5.78 (2.82) 5.90* (1.37) F = 3.14
p = 0.012 p = 0.046
FAS Total Correct [68] 46.50 (10.59) 36.69 (9.10) t = 3.55 38.15 (10.37) 36.33* (9.14) 35.10* (7.84) F = 4.28
   p = 0.001     p = 0.009
SRT Intrusions [64,65] Md. 0.00 (Rg. 0–12) Md. 1.00 (Rg. 0–6) U = 230 p = 0.09 Md. 1.00 (Rg. 0–3) Md. 0.00 (Rg. 0–4) Md. 1 (Rg. 0–6) χ2 = 5.26
p = 1.54
  1. Abbreviations:CLTR Continuous long-term retrieval; FAS Phonemic (letter) Fluency; HCs Healthy controls; Md median; PASAT Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test; Rg Range; RR-1 Relapsing-remitting MS patients with EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale) scores 0–2.5; RR-2 Relapsing-remitting MS patients with EDSS scores ≥ 3; SP Secondary progressive MS patients; SDMT Symbol Digit Modalities Test; SRT Selective Reminding Test; WCST Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, 64-card version.
  2. *Significant difference to healthy controls (post-hoc Dunnett t-test or Bonferroni-corrected U-test).
  3. Data are means (standard deviations) or medians (ranges).