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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in review

From: The economic impact of epilepsy: a systematic review

Study Study design N Country Patient population Study objective Follow-up period Economic outcomes measured
Beghi et al. 2004 [14] Cohort study 631 Italy
18 years of age and older
NDE, SR, OS, NDR, DR or SC*
(HIC)
To investigate the costs of epilepsy in different prognostic categories 12 months - Direct costs
Boon et al. 2002 [15] Cohort study 84 Belgium
All ages
Pre-surgical candidates who underwent a complete pre-surgical evaluation at Ghent University Hospital
(HIC)
To compare and economically evaluate epilepsy-related direct medical costs incurred by different treatment modalities (conservatively, surgically and vague nerve stimulation- treated) and to determine. Mean follow-up interval of 26 months - Direct costs
Cockerell 1994 [4] Cohort study 602 UK
Newly diagnosed seizure disorder (sample of the National General Practice Study of Epilepsy (NGPSE)
(HIC)
To assess the epilepsy related socio-economic costs in a population so that health care priorities can be set Mean follow-up interval 6.6 years - Direct costs
Das et al. 2007 [25] Cohort study 1450 India
No age indicated
New patients with epilepsy in the Burdwan district
(LMIC)
To evaluate the rate of discontinuation of epilepsy treatment and the related socio-economic factors responsible for discontinuation 12 months - Direct costs
- Indirect costs
- Income
De Zelicourt et al. 2000 [20] Cohort study 1942 France
More than 1 month of age, Newly diagnosed unprovoked seizure
(HIC)
Estimation of the direct medical cost for patients during the first two years after diagnosis 24 months - Direct costs
Farmer et al. 1992 [26] Quasi randomized trial 215 Ecuador
No age indicated
Epilepsy (identified in an epidemiological survey)
(UMI)
To report the effects of epilepsy and its treatment on the social functioning of patients treated in Northern Ecuador 12 months - Employment status
Guerrini et al. 2001 [16] Cohort study 189 Italy
Children and adolescents
Followed up by child neurologist (university department, general hospital, outpatient department)
(HIC)
To compare the direct costs of epilepsy in a child neurology referral population, stratified by disease, duration, and severity, across three health care settings. 12 months - Direct costs of epilepsy
Halpern et al. 2011 [34] Cohort study 574 USA
All ages
Epilepsy
(HIC)
To assess whether people with epilepsy who are uninsured and those who have Medicaid coverage have greater out-of-pocket costs 6 years - Out-of-pocket costs
Helmstaedter et al. 2000 [33] Cohort study 161 Germany
Adults
Surgically or non-surgically treated patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy
(HIC)
To investigate the long-term effects of surgical and non-surgical treatment of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy according to socioeconomic development Mean follow-up interval 58 months - Employment status
Kotsopoulos et al. 2003 [17] Cohort study 116 Netherlands
Age not indicated
Established epilepsy, recruited from three patient populations (general practices, university hospital and epilepsy centre)
(HIC)
(a) To gain insight into the direct and indirect costs of epilepsy care, and
(b) To analyse the distribution of these costs by type of services for each patient group
3 months (and 3 months retrospective) - Direct costs
- Indirect costs
- Out-of-pocket costs
Langfitt et al. 2007 [18] Cohort study 68 USA.
Age not indicated
Temporal lobe epilepsy patients
(HIC)
To determine whether health care costs change when seizures are controlled after surgery 2 years (and 2 years pre-evaluation) - Direct costs
Lindsten et al. 2002 [21] Case–control study 63 Sweden
17 years of age or older
Newly diagnosed unprovoked seizure in Vaesterbotten, northern Sweden
(HIC)
To investigate the socioeconomic prognosis after a newly diagnosed unprovoked epileptic seizure 10 years - Income
- Source of income
- Sickness periods
- Incapacity rate
- Vocational status
- Education
Pato Pato et al. 2011[22] Cohort study 171 Spain
Over 14 years of age
Epilepsy
(HIC)
To carry out an economic estimate of the direct, indirect and intangible costs of epilepsy 6 months - Direct costs
- Indirect costs
- Intangible costs
Tetto et al. 2002 [19] Cohort study 525 Italy
All ages
NDE, SR, OS, NDR, DR and SC from 14 epilepsy centres
(HIC)
To compare the direct costs of epilepsy in patients referred with epilepsy of different severity and duration 12 months - Direct costs
Balabanov et al. 2007 [24] Cohort study 146 Bulgaria
18 years of age and older recruited from an epilepsy centre
Epilepsy
(UMIC)
To evaluate the effect of demographic and clinical factors on the quality of life and cost of treatment of epilepsy patients on monotherapy with carbamazepine and valproate 12 months - Direct costs
- Indirect costs
Lagunju et al. 2011 [32] Cohort study 215 Nigeria
Children over 18 months recruited from a
paediatric neurology clinic
Epilepsy
(LMIC)
To estimate the total cost of childhood epilepsy and to provide essential information on the economic burden of childhood epilepsy in Nigeria 12 months - Direct costs
- Out-of-pocket costs
- Indirect costs
Doumbia-Outtara et al. 2010 [31] Cohort study 70 Cote d’Ivoire
Adults recruited from an inpatient unit within a hospital department of neurology
(LMIC)
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of anti-epileptic drugs and the financial cost of care n/a - Direct costs
- Out-of-pocket costs
- Indirect costs
Dongmo et al. 2003 [30] Cohort study 125 Cameroon
All ages recruited from a medical centre
Epilepsy
(LMIC)
To evaluate the difficulties faced in the management of epileptic patients in their natural environment 12 months - Direct costs
- Out-of-pocket costs
Haroon et al. 2012 [29] Cohort study 134 India
All ages recruited from a centre of neuroscience within a national hospital
Epilepsy
(LMIC)
To evaluate the costs of active epilepsy and study the pattern of drug prescription and utilisation in epileptic patients 4 months - Direct costs
- Out-of-pocket costs
Strzelcyck et al. 2013 [23] Cohort study 252 Germany
All ages recruited from an
outpatient clinic within a university hospital
Focal epilepsy
(HIC)
To estimate the direct and indirect costs of epilepsy and evaluate trends in the resource use of patients with active epilepsy. 12 months -Direct costs
-Indirect costs
Lv et al. 2007 [28] Cohort study 533 China
Parents of children with epilepsy recruited from the outpatient clinic of a
tertiary hospital epilepsy centre
Epilepsy
(UMIC)
To assess the impact of childhood epilepsy on parental quality of life (QoL) and psychological health, and to investigate possible correlations between parental QoL, background variables and parental anxiety and depression 12 months - Direct costs
- Income
- Employment status
Vlasov et al. 2010 [27] Cohort study   Russia
Epilepsy
(HIC)
To evaluate the clinical-economic effectiveness of anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy 12 months -Direct costs
  1. Abbreviations: DR drug-resistant seizures, NDE newly diagnosed epilepsy, NDR frequent non-drug-resistant seizures, OS occasional seizures, SR seizure remission, SC surgical
  2. World Bank country classifications: HIC: high-income country; UMIC: upper-middle income country; LMIC: lower-middle-income country
  3. (Accessible at: http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-and-lending-groups#Low_income)