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Table 1 Patients’ demographic characteristics

From: Primary aldosteronism in patients with acute stroke: prevalence and diagnosis during initial hospitalization

  All patients Patients P value
with PA without PA
(n = 427) (n = 17) (n = 356)
Age, y 74.3 ± 11.9 70.6 ± 10.3 74.6 ± 11.8 0.095a
Male 242 (56.7 %) 5 (29.4 %) 212 (59.6 %)d 0.014b
Hypertension 288 (67.4 %) 14 (82.4 %) 245 (68.8 %) 0.237b
Diabetes 75 (17.6 %) 0 (0 %) 70 (19.6 %)d 0.027c
Dyslipidemia 120 (28.1 %) 3 (17.6 %) 104 (29.2 %) 0.230c
History of smoking 122 (28.6 %) 2 (11.8 %) 108 (30.3 %) 0.101b
Habitual drinking 140 (32.8 %) 4 (23.5 %) 125 (35.1 %) 0.327b
Initial systolic blood pressure, mmHg 162.8 ± 31.6 179.9 ± 26.1d 162.0 ± 31.6 0.012a
Initial diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 89.7 ± 20.2 101.8 ± 15.7d 89.2 ± 20.3 0.003a
Potassium, mmol/L 4.1 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 0.4 4.1 ± 0.5d 0.001a
Stroke subtypes
 Ischemic stroke 256 (60.0 %) 7 (41.2 %) 225 (63.2 %) 0.067b
  Large artery atherosclerosis 69 (16.2 %) 1 (5.9 %) 62 (17.4 %) 0.185c
  Cardioembolism 93 (21.8 %) 3 (17.6 %) 81 (22.8 %) 0.443c
  Small vessel occlusion 38 (8.9 %) 0 (0 %) 34 (9.6 %) 0.190c
  Undetermined pathogenesis 56 (13.1 %) 3 (17.6 %) 48 (13.5 %) 0.418c
 Intracerebral hemorrhage 106 (24.8 %) 8 (47.1 %)d 86 (24.2 %) 0.038c
 Subarachnoid hemorrhage 38 (8.9 %) 0 (0 %) 24 (6.7 %) 0.315c
 Transient ischemic attack 27 (6.3 %) 2 (11.8 %) 21 (5.9 %) 0.282c
Antihypertensive medication 236 (55.3 %) 9 (52.9 %) 203 (57.0 %) 0.740b
 Calcium antagonist 166 (38.9 %) 9 (52.9 %) 134 (37.6 %) 0.233b
 ARB / ACEI 123 (28.8 %) 2 (11.8 %) 87 (24.4 %) 0.101b
 Direct renin inhibitor 1 (0.2 %) 0 (0 %) 1 (0.3 %) 0.954c
 Diuretic 63 (14.8 %) 1 (5.9 %) 45 (12.6 %) 0.227c
 Beta blocker 44 (10.3 %) 0 (0 %) 24 (6.7 %) 0.132c
 Others 8 (1.9 %) 0 (0 %) 7 (2.0 %) 0.754c
  1. Values in the table are means ± SD or Nos (%)
  2. Abbreviations: ARB angiotensin receptor blocker; ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
  3. P value calculated by aMann-Whitney’s U-test, bChi-square test, or cFisher’s exact test.  dindicates significantly higher or more frequent