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Table 1 Characteristics of the pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) cases and controls

From: Associations between the gut microbiota and host immune markers in pediatric multiple sclerosis and controls

Characteristic, n (%) unless stated otherwise MS cases, n = 15 Controls, n = 9 Cases and controls, n = 24
Sex
 Girl 8 (53 %) 7 (78 %) 15 (63 %)
 Boy 7 (47 %) 2 (22 %) 9 (38 %)
Age at stool sample collection, years: mean (SD; range) 11.9 years (SD = 4.64; 4–17) 13.8 years (SD = 3.19; 9–18) 12.6 years (SD = 4.18; 4–18)
Age at stool sample collection
  ≤ 12 years old 6 (40 %) 4 (44 %) 10 (42 %)
  > 12 years old 9 (60 %) 5 (56 %) 14 (58 %)
Race
 White 5 (33 %) 6 (67 %) 11 (46 %)
 Non-white 10 (67 %) 3 (33 %) 13 (54 %)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic 6 (40 %) 3 (33 %) 9 (38 %)
 Non- Hispanic 9 (60 %) 6 (67 %) 15 (63 %)
Co-morbid conditiona
 Present 6 (40 %) 2 (22 %) 8 (33 %)
 Absent 9 (60 %) 7 (78 %) 16 (67 %)
  1. Key: SD standard deviation
  2. aComorbid conditions were collected pre-stool sample (but were not necessarily present pre-MS onset): for cases: headache (n = 1); atopic dermatitis/eczema (n = 1); long-term constipation (n = 1); history of seizures (n = 1); reactive airways disease and headache (n = 1); scoliosis (n = 1). For controls: kyphosis (n = 1); Raynaud phenomenon (n = 1)