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Table 6 Baseline cognitive, physical and functional characteristics and quality of life of the participants in the 4C Study

From: A profile of The Clinical Course of Cognition and Comorbidity in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Study (The 4C study): two complementary longitudinal, clinical cohorts in the Netherlands

Mean ± SD, unless stated differently 4C-MCI cohort (n = 315) 4C-Dementia cohort (n = 331)
Subclassification cognitive disorder, N (%)a
 Subjective cognitive decline 90 (29) n.a.
 Amnestic MCI 151 (48) n.a.
 Non-amnestic MCI 71 (23) n.a.
 Alzheimer’s disease (probable or possible) n.a. 216 (65)
 Vascular dementia or any dementia diagnosis with a vascular component n.a. 71 (21)
 Any other dementia diagnosis without a vascular component n.a. 44 (13)
Self-reported duration of cognitive problems (years) 3.3 ± 3.8 3.1 ± 2.6
Self-reported course of cognitive problems, N (%)
 Progressive 213 (67.6) 285 (89.1)
 Stable 40 (12.7) 14 (4.4)
 Fluctuated 33 (10.5) 21 (6.6)
Cognitive functionsb
 MMSE (range 0–30, lower is worse) 26.9 ± 2.6 21.9 ± 3.7
 VLT immediate recall (z-score, lower is worse) −1.1 ± 1.2 −2.3 ± 1.1
 VLT delayed recall (z-score, lower is worse) −1.2 ± 1.3 −2.4 ± 0.9
 60 s animal fluency (z-score, lower is worse) −0.7 ± 0.8 −1.7 ± 0.9
 TMT-A (z-score, lower is worse) −0.3 ± 1.4 −1.7 ± 1.9
 TMT-B (z-score, lower is worse) −0.4 ± 1.3 −1.8 ± 1.4
 SCWT card 1 + 2 (z-score, lower is worse) −1.2 ± 1.7 −2.8 ± 2.5
 SCWT card 3 (z-score, lower is worse) −1.2 ± 2.4 −3.5 ± 3.2
Neuropsychiatric symptoms
 GDS-15 (range 0–15, higher is worse) 3.6 ± 2.8 3.1 ± 2.7
 NPI (range 0–144, higher is worse) 14.5 ± 15.0 16.3 ± 16.3
BMI (kg/m2, mean ± SD) 26.2 ± 3.9 25.9 ± 4.3
DAD (range 0–100, lower is worse) 86.7 ± 15.7 70.8 ± 24.1
CIRS-G
 Total score (range 0–52c, higher is worse) 7.09 ± 4.87 7.48 ± 4.94
 Severity index (total score/number of categories endorsed, range 0–4, higher is worse) 1.57 ± 0.51 1.63 ± 0.55
 Comorbidity index (number of categories with score ≥2, range 0–13, higher is worse) 2.25 ± 1.93 2.37 ± 1.90
CIRS-G category with score ≥2 (at least moderate disability or morbidity/requires “first line” therapy), N (%)
 Heart 92 (29.2) 90 (27.3)
 Vascular 144 (45.7) 170 (51.5)
 Hematopoietic 12 (3.8) 25 (7.6)
 Respiratory 74 (23.5) 54 (16.4)
 Eyes/ears/nose/throat 54 (17.1) 72 (21.8)
 Upper gastrointestinal 48 (15.2) 43 (13.0)
 Lower gastrointestinal 28 (8.9) 35 (10.6)
 Liver 20 (6.3) 21 (6.4)
 Renal 15 (4.8) 19 (5.8)
 Genitourinary 57 (18.1) 75 (22.7)
 Neuromuscular 40 (12.7) 70 (21.2)
 Neurological 75 (23.8) 48 (14.6)
 Endocrine 49 (15.6) 59 (17.9)
Frailty according Fried Criteria, N (%)
 Not frail (≤1 of 5 criteria satisfied), 219 (74.7) 224 (68.9)
 Pre-frail (2 of 5 criteria satisfied) 44 (15.0) 55 (16.9)
 Frail (≥3 of 5 criteria satisfied) 30 (10.2) 46 (14.2)
EQ-5D (with Dutch weights) (range 0–1, lower is worse) 0.98 ± 0.06 0.81 ± 0.20
EQ-5D VAS (range 0–100, lower is worse) 69.4 ± 15.6 67.5 ± 16.9
  1. a3 (1% of 315) participants in the 4C MCI cohort with MCI could not be classified as amnestic versus non-amnestic MCI due to missing 15-Word Verbal Learning Test scores
  2. bDespite the application of the Petersen criteria for definition of MCI, mean cognitive scores on the different domains may be above -1.5 SD of the Dutch norm scores, because people with SCD were included in the 4C MCI cohort, but do not satisfy the MCI criteria, also MCI patients were not required to score below -1.5 SD on all domains assessed
  3. cthe range of the CIRS-G is 0–52 rather than 0–56, as the psychiatric domain was left out of the scale to create a measure of purely physical comorbidity