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Table 2 EEG and neuroradiological (CT/MRI) findings

From: Syncope and Epilepsy coexist in ‘possible’ and ‘drug-resistant’ epilepsy (Overlap between Epilepsy and Syncope Study - OESYS)

  Total population (n = 107) Possible Epilepsy (n = 63, 58.9%) Drug-resistant Epilepsy (n = 44, 41.1%)
EEG: normal patterna, n (%) 12 (11.2) 12 (19.0) 0 (0)
EEG: abnormal not epileptiformb, n (%) 61 (57.0) 51 (81.0) 10 (22.7)
EEG: epileptiformc, n (%) 34 (31.8) 0 (0.0) 34 (77.3)
 Temporal lobe spike activity, n (%) 27 (25.2) 0 (0.0) 27 (61.4)
Neuro-imaging (CT/MRI)
 Normal, n (%) 58 (54.2) 40 (63.5) 18 (40.9)
 Tumors, n (%) 4 (3.7) 3 (4.8) 1 (2.3)
 Cortical Atrophy, n (%) 9 (8.4) 5 (7.9) 4 (9.1)
 Leukoaraiosis, n (%) 24 (22.4) 14 (22.2) 10 (22.7)
 Neurosurgery findings, n (%) 7 (6.5) 0 (0.0) 7 (15.9)
 Cortico-subcortical infarcts, n (%) 2 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 2 (4.5)
 Limbic Encephalitis findings, n (%) 1 (0.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.3)
 Cortical malformations, n (%) 2 (1.9) 1 (1.6) 1 (2.3)
  1. CT computed tomography, EEG electroencephalogram, MRI magnetic resonance imaging
  2. aBackground activity generally characterized by alpha rhythm (with a frequency of 8–13 Hz), reacting to the opening and closing of the eyes, and a typical posterior representation; morphology mostly regular
  3. bSlow activity (theta activity) focal or diffuse, non-paroxysmal and/or non-dominant
  4. cEpileptiform activity (spikes; polyspikes, sharp waves, spikes and waves or polyspike-waves complexes) both generalized and focal