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Table 1 Neuroimaging spectrum of dengue-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy

From: Cortical laminar necrosis in dengue encephalitis—a case report

Clinical syndrome Neuroimaging features Pathogenesis
Diffuse brain involvement
 Encephalopathy Often normal Impaired liver and renal dysfunction Ischemic-hypoxemic injury
 Acute encephalitis Usually normal; diffuse cortical and periventricular, hyperintensities Direct viral invasion of brain
 Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis GRE sequence shows areas of blooming indicating hemorrhage Direct viral invasion of brain
 Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Periventricular white matter lesions Post-infectious demyelination
Vascular complications
 Cerebral venous thrombosis Thrombosis of venous system of brain Severe dehydration and hypotension
 Intracerebral hemorrhage Cerebral parenchymal, subdural or subarachnoidal hematoma Thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation and associated coagulopathies
 Ischemic stroke Multiple infarctions Vasculitis, infective thromboembolism
Focal encephalitis
 Cerebellitis Rhombencephalitis Hyperintensities in brainstem and cerebellum Direct viral invasion