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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Current smoking is associated with extracranial carotid atherosclerotic stenosis but not with intracranial large artery disease

Variables Overall
(n = 2864)
No ECAS or ICAS
(n = 1388)
Only ECAS
(n = 141)
Only ICAS
(n = 1074)
ECAS + ICAS
(n = 261)
P value
Age (Mean ± SD) 61.9 ± 11.2 61.2 ± 11.2 64.7 ± 10.4 62.1 ± 11.5 63.6 ± 10.1 <0.001
Gender (male) 1944(67.8) 938(67.6) 110(78.0) 696(64.8) 200(76.6) <0.001
Stroke risk factors       
 Diabetes mellitus 991(34.6) 414(29.3) 50(35.5) 418(38.9) 109(41.8) <0.001
 Hypertension 2238(78.1) 1056(76.1) 105(74.5) 866(80.6) 211(80.8) 0.02
 Hyperlipidemia 2173(75.9) 1042(75.1) 119(84.4) 807(75.1) 205(78.5) 0.05
 Family history of stroke 296(10.3) 122(8.8) 16(11.4) 112(10.4) 46(17.6) <0.001
 History of cerebral ischemia 2018(70.5) 930(67.0) 117(83.0) 772(71.9) 199(76.3) <0.001
 History of hemorrhagic stroke 54(1.9) 29(2.1) 3(2.1) 19(1.8) 3(1.2) 0.73
 Coronary heart disease 228(8.0) 102(7.4) 17(12.1) 88(8.2) 21(8.1) 0.30
 Heavy drinking 142(5.0) 66(4.8) 9(6.4) 51(4.8) 16(6.1) 0.66
Smoking status       <0.001
 Never smoker 1568(54.8) 774(55.8) 53(37.6) 623 (58.0) 118 (45.2)  
 Former smoker 247(8.6) 118(8.5) 17(12.1) 84 (7.8) 28 (10.7)  
 Current smoker 1049(36.6) 496(35.7) 71(50.4) 367 (34.2) 115 (40.1)  
Comorbidities       
 COPD 12(0.4) 8(0.6) 1(0.7) 2(0.2) 1(0.4) 0.47
 Hepatic cirrhosis 7(0.2) 1(0.1) 0(0.0) 5(0.5) 1(0.4) 0.22
 Peptic ulcer or previous GIB 80(2.8) 43(3.1) 6(4.3) 23(2.1) 8(3.1) 0.34
 Arthritis 46(1.6) 16(1.2) 3(2.1) 26(2.4) 1(0.4) 0.03
 Dementia 19(0.7) 8(0.6) 1(0.7) 9(0.8) 1(0.4) 0.81
 Cancer 48(1.7) 23(1.7) 5(3.6) 17(1.6) 3(1.2) 0.32
 Peripheral angiopathy 21(0.7) 9(0.7) 1(0.7) 7(0.7) 4(1.5) 0.47
Index event       0.01
 Transient ischemic attack 208(7.3) 106(7.6) 19(13.5) 62(5.8) 21(8.1)  
 Acute ischemic stroke 2656(92.7) 1282(92.4) 122(86.5) 1012(94.2)) 240(92.0)  
SBP at admission, mm Hg (median, IQR) 150(135–167) 150(136–165) 150(130–165) 150(135–170) 150(135–162) 0.31
DBP at admission, mm Hg (median, IQR) 88(80–95) 89(80–96) 85(80–90) 87(80–95) 85(80–95) 0.23
NIHSS at admission (median, IQR) 4(1–7) 3(1–5) 3(1–5) 4(2–8) 5(2–10) <0.001
Fasting blood glucose, mmol/L (median, IQR) 5.4(4.8–6.8) 5.3(4.7–6.6) 5.3(4.8–6.2) 5.7(4.9–7.2) 5.8(4.8–7.1) <0.001
TG, mmol/L (median, IQR) 1.5(1.1–2.1) 1.5(1.1–2.2) 1.6(1.1–2.1) 1.5(1.1–2.1) 1.4(1.1–2.0) 0.15
TC, mmol/L (median, IQR) 4.66(4.00–5.38) 4.67(4.06–5.40) 4.58(3.87–5.33) 4.68(3.98–5.38) 4.50(3.95–5.35) 0.15
HDL, mmol/L (median, IQR) 1.12(0.96–1.32) 1.15(0.98–1.36) 1.08(0.95–1.29) 1.09(0.95–1.29) 1.08(0.91–1.27) <0.001
LDL, mmol/L (median, IQR) 2.82(2.27–3.45) 2.83(2.26–3.43) 2.74(2.28–3.40) 2.84(2.28–3.47) 2.82(2.25–3.49) 0.91
  1. Abbreviations: ICAS indicates intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, ECAS extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, SD standard deviation, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GIB gastrointestinal bleeding, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, IQR interquartile range, NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, TG triglyceride, TC cholesterol, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein