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Table 2 Association between smoking status and ECAS and ICAS in all enrolled patients (N = 2864)

From: Current smoking is associated with extracranial carotid atherosclerotic stenosis but not with intracranial large artery disease

Arterial stenosis Category Unadjusted OR P value Adjusted OR1 P value Adjusted OR2 P value Adjusted OR3 P value
ECAS Previous smoking vs. never 1.82(1.27–2.61) 0.001 1.57(1.07–2.30) 0.02 1.49(1.01–2.09) 0.04 1.42(0.92–2.18) 0.11
  Current smoking vs. never 1.76(1.41–2.20) <0.001 1.82(1.39–2.38) <0.001 1.74(1.33–2.27) <0.001 1.47(1.09–1.99) <0.01
  Smoking vs. never 1.77(1.43–2.19) <0.001 1.76(1.36–2.26) <0.001 1.67(1.30–2.16) <0.001 1.46(1.09–1.94) <0.01
ICAS Previous smoking vs. never 0.93(0.71–1.21) 0.58 0.94(0.71–1.25) 0.66 0.91(0.69–1.22) 0.54 1.01(0.71–1.44) 0.95
  Current smoking vs. never 0.95(0.81–1.11) 0.51 1.01(0.84–1.22) 0.91 0.99(0.82–1.20) 0.93 0.92(0.73–1.15) 0.45
  Smoking vs. never 0.94(0.82–1.10) 0.45 1.00(0.83–1.19) 0.95 0.97(0.82–1.17) 0.77 0.93(0.75–1.16) 0.53
Intra-ICA Previous smoking vs. never 1.61(0.96–2.72) 0.07 1.42(0.98–2.11) 0.21 1.39(0.80–2.42) 0.25 1.26(0.65–2.45) 0.50
  Current smoking vs. never 1.58(1.14–2.18) 0.005 1.44(0.82–2.47) 0.06 1.34(0.91–1.98) 0.14 1.13(0.71–1.79) 0.61
  Smoking vs. never 1.58(1.16–2.16) 0.003 1.43(0.99–2.07) 0.05 1.35(0.94–1.95) 0.11 1.15(0.74–1.79) 0.52
MCA Previous smoking vs. never 1.01(0.75–1.36) 0.94 1.01(0.74–1.37) 0.97 0.99(0.73–1.36) 0.97 1.05(0.72–1.53) 0.79
  Current smoking vs. never 1.03(0.87–1.23) 0.70 1.02(0.83–1.25) 0.86 1.01(0.82–1.24) 0.94 0.89(0.70–1.14) 0.36
  Smoking vs. never 1.03(0.88–1.21) 0.73 1.02(0.84–1.23) 0.87 1.01(0.83–1.22) 0.96 0.92(0.73–1.16) 0.50
ACA Previous smoking vs. never 1.01(0.62–1.65) 0.97 1.17(0.69–1.97) 0.56 1.12(0.66–1.89) 0.69 0.93(0.49–1.76) 0.83
  Current smoking vs. never 0.86(0.63–1.16) 0.31 1.09(0.76–1.56) 0.64 1.04(0.73–1.50) 0.82 1.00(0.65–1.54) 0.99
  Smoking vs. never 0.89(0.67–1.17) 0.39 1.11(0.79–1.55) 0.56 1.06(0.75–1.49) 0.74 0.99(0.66–1.48) 0.94
PCA Previous smoking vs. never 1.16(0.84–1.60) 0.37 1.29(0.92–1.83) 0.14 1.24(0.88–1.76) 0.22 1.40(0.93–2.11) 0.10
  Current smoking vs. never 0.71(0.58–0.88) 0.001 0.91(0.71–1.16) 0.45 0.88(0.68–1.13) 0.32 0.92(0.68–1.23) 0.57
  Smoking vs. never 0.79(0.65–0.96) 0.01 0.99(0.79–1.25) 0.94 0.96(0.76–1.21) 0.72 1.02(0.77–1.34) 0.90
BA Previous smoking vs. never 0.91(0.53–1.56) 0.73 0.90(0.51–1.60) 0.73 0.83(0.47–1.47) 0.52 0.79(0.40–1.53) 0.48
  Current smoking vs. never 0.71(0.51–1.00) 0.05 0.81(0.55–1.20) 0.30 0.81(0.54–1.20) 0.28 0.88(0.56–1.40) 0.59
  Smoking vs. never 0.75(0.55–1.02) 0.07 0.83(0.58–1.20) 0.33 0.81(0.56–1.17) 0.26 0.86(0.56–1.32) 0.48
  1. Abbreviations: ICAS indicates intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, ECAS extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, OR odds ration, Intra-ICA intracranial internal carotid artery, MCA middle cerebral artery, ACA anterior cerebral artery, PCA posterior cerebral artery, BA basilar artery
  2. OR1 adjusted for demographics (age and gender). OR2 adjusted for demographics (age and gender) and stroke risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history of stroke, history of cerebral ischemia, history of hemorrhagic stroke, heart disease). OR3 adjusted for all potential confounders including demographics, (age and gender), stroke risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history of stroke, history of cerebral ischemia, history of hemorrhagic stroke, heart disease), comorbidities (COPD, hepatic cirrhosis, peptic ulcer or previous GIB, arthritis, dementia, cancer and peripheral angiopathy), admission NIHSS, admission SBP and DBP, and admission blood tests (fasting blood glucose, TG, TC, HDL and LDL)