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Table 1 Characteristics of included papers

From: Mindfulness-based stress reduction in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review

Author (Year) Location Population Numbers Mean Age (SD) Ethnicity Main Outcomes assessed Main results
Cash at al [22]
2016
USA
39 (21 men (53.8%) 18 women) 65.6 (7.6) 89.7% Caucasian Apathy (Apathy Scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9); anxiety
(Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7)
Mindfulness levels significantly increased for all participants from pre- too immediate- to post. A significant improvement was seen for self –reported symptoms of depression and self-reported language functioning. Also showed significant improvement on mental flexibility and complex attention tasks and reported significantly fewer emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with PD.
Pickut et al. [23]
2013
Belgium
27 (14 (51.9%) men 13 women) 61.8 (9.1) N/I MRI data sets of the brain were obtained at baseline and after 8 weeks’ follow-up. VBM analysis was performed using DARTEL from the SPM8 software. The resulting difference maps were statistically compared to examine grey matter density (GMD) differences. Increased GMD was found in the MBSR compared to the UC group in the region of interest analysis in the right amygdala, and bilaterally in the hippocampus. Whole brain analysis showed increased GMD in the left and right caudate nucleus, the left occipital lobe at the lingual gyrus and cuneus, the left thalamus, and bilaterally in the temporo-parietal junction. In contrast, GMD differences were found in the UC group in the left anterior lobe and dentate nucleus of the cerebellum.
Pickut et al. [24]
2015
Belgium
27 (14 men 13 women) 61.8 (9.1) N/I Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, PDQ-39, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Significant changes after the MBSR were found including a 5.5 point decrease. On the UPDRS motor score, an increase of 0.79 points on Parkinson’s disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) pain item, and a 3.15 point increase in the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire observe facet.