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Table 4 Patient-related outcome measures

From: Adherence, satisfaction and functional health status among patients with multiple sclerosis using the BETACONNECT® autoinjector: a prospective observational cohort study

Questionnaire Initial visit 24-week visit Results from other published studies in patients with MS
FAMS (scale: 0–176) Total score (without regard to additional concerns) N = 129 N = 97  
 Mean (SD) 135.5 (29.2) 134.6 (33.7) 120.3 (33.2) N = 137 [19]
120.3 (30.7) N = 344 [20]
107.5 (32.9) N = 377 [15]
110.4 (31.7) N = 463–472 [21]
 Median (range) 145.2 (58–171) 146 (56–176) ----
HADS – anxiety (scale: 0–21) N = 131 N = 94  
 Mean (SD) 5.3 (4.1) 5.4 (4.3) 8.03 (4.2) N = 4516 [23]
 Median (range) 5 (0–18) 5 (0–19) ----
 Cut-off ≥8, % 26.5 26.6 ----
HADS – depression (scale: 0–21) N = 131 N = 94 ----
 Mean (SD) 3.7 (3.7) 4.1 (4.1) 7.37 (4.2) N = 4516 [23]
7.0 (2.9) N = 269 [24]
 Median (range) 2 (0–15) 3 (0–16) ----
 Cut-off ≥8, % 16.7 19.2 ----
CES-D (scale: 0–60) N = 131 N = 95  
 Mean (SD) 12.8 (9.6) 13.0 (11.6) 18.5 (10.1) N = 51 [22]
20 (12.1) N = 463–472 [21]
 Median (range) 10 (0–40) 9 (0–43) ----
  < 16, % 65.7 65.3 ----
 16–21, % 16.8 12.6 ----
  > 21, % 17.6 22.1 ----
FSMC (scale: 20–100)    ----
 Cognitive N = 66 N = 95 ----
  Mean (SD) 23.0 (11.0) 22.2 (10.8) ----
  Median (range) 21.5 (10–50) 18 (10–50) ----
 Motor N = 131 N = 98 ----
  Mean (SD) 23.6 (11.1) 24.1 (11.8) ----
  Median (range) 22.9 (10–49) 20.5 (10–50) ----
 Total N = 66 N = 95  
  Mean (SD) 47.3 (21.9) 46.1 (21.9) 65.2 (17.5) N = 51 [22]
  Median (range) 47.5 (20–98) 39 (20–100) ----
SDMT Total (scale: 0–110) N = 116 N = 75  
 Mean (SD) 47.9 (12.6) 51.5 (14.4) 49.06 (10.01) N = 51 [22]
51 (13.0) N = 159 [26]
47.66 (14.71) N = 100 [25]
55.3 (12.17) N = 22 [27]
 Median (range) 49 (16–76) 51 (15–95) ----
  1. SD standard deviation, EDSS expanded disability status scale, FAMS Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, SDMT The Symbol Digit Modalities Test, FSMC Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions