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Table 4 Summary of cytokines analysed in the included studies

From: A systematic review of cytokines in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis/systemic exertion intolerance disease (CFS/ME/SEID)

Cytokine n Reference(s) Number of Studies indicating significant (p < 0.05) increases (‘n’, author(s)) Number of Studies indicating significant (p < 0.05) decreases (‘n’, author(s))
CCL2 6 [21, 22, 24, 25, 28, 30] 0 0
CCL3 5 [21, 22, 24, 25, 30] 0 0
CCL4 5 [21, 22, 24, 25, 30] 0 0
CCL5 5 [21, 24, 27, 29, 35] 1 [24] 0
CCL7 2 [21, 24] 0 0
CCL11 5 [21, 22, 24, 25, 30] 0 0
CCL13 1 [24] 0 0
CCL17 1 [24] 0 0
CCL19 1 [24] 1 [24] 0
CCL22 1 [24] 0 0
CCL24 1 [24] 1 [24] 0
CCL26 1 [24] 0 0
CXCL-1 2 [22, 25] 0 0
CXCL-5 2 [22, 25] 0 0
CXCL-9 3 [22, 24, 25] 0 1 [25]
CXCL-10 5 [21, 22, 24, 25, 30] 0 0
CX3CL-1 1 [24] 0 1 [24]
FGF 1 [21] 0 0
FGF-b 3 [22, 25, 30] 0 0
G-CSF 4 [21, 24, 29, 35] 0 0
GM-CSF 6 [21, 22, 24, 25, 28, 30] 0 0
HGF 2 [22, 25] 0 0
IFN-α 2 [25, 33] 0 0
IFN-α2 1 [21] 0 0
IFN-β 2 [22, 25] 0 0
IFN-γ 9 [20,21,22, 24, 25, 28,29,30, 32] 0 1 [28]
IL-1RA 3 [21, 25, 30] 0 0
IL-1α 5 [20, 24, 25, 28, 32] 1 [20] 0
IL-1β 9 [20, 21, 24,25,26, 28,29,30, 32] 2 [20, 28] 1 [25]
IL-2 7 [20,21,22, 24, 25, 30, 32] 0 0
IL-3 1 [28] 0 0
IL-4 9 [20,21,22, 24,25,26, 28, 30, 32] 1 [20] 0
IL-5 7 [20,21,22, 24, 25, 28, 32] 1 [20] 0
IL-6 11 [20,21,22, 24,25,26,27,28,29,30, 32] 2 [20, 27] 2 [21, 29]
IL-7 6 [21, 22, 24, 25, 28, 33] 1 [21] 1 [25]
IL-8 12 [20,21,22, 24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32] 2 [21, 29] 2 [20, 32]
IL-9 1 [30] 0 0
IL-10 10 [20,21,22, 24,25,26, 28,29,30, 32] 2 [26, 29] 0
IL-12p40 3 [22, 25, 28] 0 0
IL-12p70 8 [20,21,22, 24, 25, 28, 30, 32] 1 [20] 0
IL-12/23p40 1 [24] 0 0
IL-13 8 [20,21,22, 24, 25, 28, 30, 32] 0 1 [20]
IL-15 6 [20, 24, 25, 28, 30, 32] 0 1 [20]
IL-16 2 [22, 24] 0 1 [24]
IL-17 6 [19, 23, 24, 29, 31, 35] 0 0
IL-17A 1 [21] 0 1 [21]
IL-17F 2 [22, 25] 0 0
IL-23 2 [20, 32] 0 0
Leptin 2 [22, 25] 0 0
LIF 2 [22, 25] 0 0
LTα 2 [20, 32] 1 [20] 0
M-CSF 2 [22, 25] 0 0
NGF 1 [31] 0 0
β-NGF 1 [21] 0 0
Resistin 2 [22, 25] 0 1 [25]
SCF 2 [22, 25] 0 0
TNF-α 11 [20,21,22, 24,25,26, 28,29,30,31,32] 1 [29] 0
TNF-β 3 [22, 24, 25] 1 [32] 0
TGF-α 2 [22, 25] 0 0
TGF-β 3 [22, 25, 32] 1 [25] 1 [22]
TGF-β1 1 [23, 34] 1 [23] 1 [34]
VEGF 3 [21, 25, 30] 0 0
VEGF-A 2 [22, 24] 0 1 [24]
  1. IL interleukin, IFN interferon, LT lymphotoxin, TNF tumor necrosis factor, FGF fibroblast growth factor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, G-CSF granulocyte colony stimulating factor, GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, CXCL C-X-C motif ligand, CCL C-C motif ligand, SCF stem cell factor, TGF transforming growth factor
  2. This table contains the frequency of the cytokines analysed in the included 269 studies, including a summary of the significant increases and decreases