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Table 4 Adjusted Average Differences in Later Life Neuropsychological Test Performance Associated with Mid-Life 25(OH) D Concentrations: the ARIC Study a

From: Mid-life serum Vitamin D concentrations were associated with incident dementia but not late-life neuropsychological performance in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Neuropsychological outcomes 25(OH) D (ng/mL) p-trend Per 1 SD decrement in 25(OH) D b
≥30 (Sufficient) 20- < 30 (Intermediate) < 20 (Deficient)
N 3046 5759 4234   13,039
Functional Ability, Mental status, and Depressive symptoms
 Functional activities questionnaire (FAQ) score c
  Model 1 e 0 (reference) 0.27 (− 0.32, 0.87) 0.06 (− 0.84, 0.95) 0.93 −0.08 (− 0.47, 0.31)
  Model 2 f 0 (reference) 0.24 (−0.35, 0.84) 0.02 (− 0.86, 0.90) 0.99 − 0.09 (− 0.48, 0.29)
  Model 3 g 0 (reference) 0.29 (− 0.31, 0.89) 0.16 (− 0.73, 1.05) 0.75 − 0.04 (− 0.43, 0.35)
Time to walk 4 m (sec) d
 Model 1 e 0 (reference) −0.04 (− 0.14, 0.07) −0.05 (− 0.18, 0.09) 0.49 −0.03 (− 0.09, 0.02)
 Model 2 f 0 (reference) −0.05 (− 0.15, 0.05) −0.07 (− 0.20, 0.06) 0.32 −0.04 (− 0.10, 0.01)
 Model 3 g 0 (reference) −0.06 (− 0.16, 0.05) −0.07 (− 0.21, 0.06) 0.27 −0.04 (− 0.10, 0.01)
Grip strength c
 Model 1 e 0 (reference) 0.09 (−0.32, 0.49) −0.001 (− 0.56, 0.55) 0.98 0.03 (− 0.19, 0.25)
 Model 2 f 0 (reference) 0.12 (−0.28, 0.52) 0.07 (− 0.48, 0.61) 0.83 0.06 (− 0.16, 0.27)
 Model 3 g 0 (reference) 0.12 (−0.27, 0.52) 0.06 (−0.48, 0.60) 0.84 0.05 (−0.16, 0.26)
Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) c
 Model 1 e 0 (reference) −0.01 (− 0.16, 0.14) 0.0003 (− 0.20, 0.20) 0.99 0.02 (− 0.06, 0.10)
 Model 2 f 0 (reference) 0.02 (−0.13, 0.17) 0.05 (− 0.15, 0.25) 0.61 0.04 (− 0.04, 0.12)
 Model 3 g 0 (reference) 0.02 (−0.12, 0.17) 0.05 (−0.15, 0.25) 0.63 0.04 (−0.04, 0.12)
Mini-mental state exam (MMSE) c
 Model 1 e 0 (reference) −0.11 (− 0.27, 0.05) −0.04 (− 0.25, 0.18) 0.77 0.002 (− 0.08, 0.08)
 Model 2 f 0 (reference) −0.11 (− 0.27, 0.05) −0.03 (− 0.24, 0.19) 0.85 0.01 (− 0.07, 0.08)
 Model 3 g 0 (reference) −0.11 (− 0.27, 0.06) −0.03 (− 0.25, 0.19) 0.81 0.002 (− 0.08, 0.09)
Depression score (CESD) d
 Model 1 e 0 (reference) −0.04 (− 0.23, 0.14) −0.05 (− 0.26, 0.17) 0.68 −0.04 (− 0.12, 0.05)
 Model 2 f 0 (reference) −0.06 (− 0.25, 0.13) −0.07 (− 0.29, 0.15) 0.53 −0.04 (− 0.13, 0.04)
 Model 3 g 0 (reference) −0.07 (− 0.25, 0.12) −0.09 (− 0.31, 0.13) 0.40 −0.05 (− 0.14, 0.03)
  1. a Results are presented as beta-coefficients (95% CI) derived from multivariable linear regression models. Sufficient 25(OH) D ≥ 30 ng/mL was the reference for the intermediate and deficient 25(OH) D categories
  2. b SD 25(OH) D = 8.4 ng/mL; To covert 25(OH) D from ng/mL to nmol/L, multiply by 2.496
  3. c For FAQ score, grip strength, SPPB, and MMSE: a higher value indicates a more favorable performance/measure
  4. d For time to walk 4 m and CESD: a lower value indicates a more favorable performance/measure
  5. e Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, race/center, educational, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and APOE ε4 genotype
  6. f Model 2: Model 1 plus systolic blood pressure, use of hypertension medication, total and HDL cholesterol, use of cholesterol medications, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and estimated glomerular filtration rate
  7. g Model 3: Model 2 plus serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations