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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in stroke patients with normal swallowing function vs. patients with relevant dysphagia. Statistically significant p-levels are printed in bold

From: Adjustment of oral diet based on flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in acute stroke patients: a cross-sectional hospital-based registry study

  Total cohort (n = 152) Normal swallowing function (n = 42) Relevant dysphagia (n = 110) P
Sex
 Male 94 (61.8%) 25 (59.5%) 69 (62.7%) 0.427
Age median (IQR) 73 (61.25–81) 71 (58.5–80) 74 (63–81) 0.198
Stroke entity
 ischemic stroke 125 (82.2%) 34 (81%) 91 (82.7%)  
 primary haemorrhage 27 (17.8%) 8 (19%) 19 (17.3%)  
Stroke severity on admission
 NIHSS on admission; median (IQR) 10 (5–15.5) 7 (4–12) 11 (6–17) 0.013
 mRS on admission; median (IQR) 4 (3–5) 4 (3–5) 5 (4–5) 0.012
Stroke severity at discharge
 NIHSS at discharge; median (IQR) 6 (3–11) 4 (1–9.5) 7 (4–12) 0.05
 mRS at discharge; median (IQR) 4 (3–5) 4 (2–4) 4 (3–5) 0.002
Time from admission to first FEES in days (median, IQR) 6 (3–11) 6 (2–10.25) 6 (3–11) 0.497
Length of stay in hospital in days (median, IQR) 17 (12–27.75) 15.5 (11.75–25.25) 18 (12–29) 0.225
Intensive care unit 61 (48.8%) 14 (33.3%) 47 (42.7%) 0.378
 Necessity for intubation & mechanical ventilation lasting longer than 24 h 29 (19.1%) 4 (9.5%) 25 (22.7%) 0.023
Pneumonia 62 (40.8%) 16 (38.1%) 46 (41.8%) 0.715
Death 8 (5.3%) 0 8 (7.2%) 0.107
PEG procedure 34 (22.4%) 8 (19%) 26 (23.6%) 0.665
Diet after FEES
 No change in oral diet 47 (30.9%) 7 (16.7%) 40 (36.4%) 0.019
 Change in oral diet 105 (69.1%) 35 (83.3%) 70 (63.6%) 0.019
  Restriction 48 (31,6%) 1 (2.4%) 47 (42.7%) < 0.001
  Lowering of restrictions 57 (37,5%) 34 (81%) 23 (20.9%) < 0.001
  1. IQR: interquartile range
  2. NIHSS: National institute of Health Stroke Scale
  3. mRS: Modified Rankin-Scale
  4. PEG: percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy tube