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Table 1 Baseline demographics and patient characteristics

From: Comparing healthcare cost associated with the use of enzyme-inducing and non-enzyme active antiepileptic drugs in elderly patients with epilepsy in the UK: a long-term retrospective, matched cohort study

 Unmatched populationMatched population
EIAED(n = 964)nEAAED (n = 461)p-valueaEIAED(n = 210)nEAAED (n = 210)p-valuea
Demographics
Age at index date, mean (SD), years76.2 (7.4)75.1 (7.5)0.007675.7 (7.3)74.8 (7.7)0.2041
Age band, n (%)
 65–69219 (22.7)133 (28.9) 51 (24.3)70 (33.3) 
 70–74217 (22.5)115 (24.9) 54 (25.7)43 (20.5) 
 75–79212 (22.0)87 (18.9) 38 (18.1)44 (21.0) 
 80–84181 (18.8)66 (14.3) 40 (19.0)25 (11.9) 
 85–8986 (8.9)39 (8.5) 17 (8.1)18 (8.6) 
 ≥9049 (5.1)21 (4.6) 10 (4.8)10 (4.8) 
Male, n (%)494 (51.2)191 (41.4)0.0005105 (50.0)99 (47.1)0.5580
Germaine–Smith comorbidity index, mean (SD)1.7 (2.4)1.4 (2.2)0.07151.2 (1.8)1.2 (1.8)0.7043
Epilepsy and treatment characteristics
Time since first epilepsy diagnosis, mean (SD), years3.5 (10.2)10.9 (18.0)< 0.00015.7 (13.8)7.5 (15.3)0.2075
Epilepsy type, n (%)      
 Focal154 (16.0)70 (15.2)0.037929 (13.8)36 (17.1)0.5268
 Generalised119 (12.3)37 (8.0) 18 (8.6)14 (6.7) 
 Unspecified691 (71.7)354 (76.8) 163 (77.6)160 (76.2) 
Index AED is first AED, n (%)920 (95.4)373 (80.9)< 0.0001194 (92.4)185 (88.1)0.1390
Most common (≥10% of patients) index AED, n (%)  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
 Carbamazepine462 (47.9)0 111 (52.9)0 
 Gabapentin0141 (30.6) 052 (24.8) 
 Lamotrigine0201 (43.6) 0109 (51.9) 
 Levetiracetam060 (13.0) 032 (15.2) 
 Phenytoin485 (50.3)0 94 (44.8)0 
 Pregabalin059 (12.8) 017 (8.1) 
Most common (≥5% of patients in any category) comorbidities, n (%)
 Cardiovascular disease439 (45.5)193 (41.9)0.191686 (41.0)79 (37.6)0.4843
 Hypertension285 (29.6)130 (28.2)0.595853 (25.2)51 (24.3)0.8211
 Neoplasms128 (13.3)41 (8.9)0.016617 (8.1)18 (8.6)0.8599
 Psychiatric issues95 (9.9)43 (9.3)0.752916 (7.6)21 (10.0)0.3894
 Osteoporosis30 (3.1)27 (5.9)0.01346 (2.9)7 (3.3)0.7781
Most common (≥5% of patients in any category) non-AED medication use, n (%)
 Antihypertension drugs416 (43.2)249 (54.0)0.0001102 (48.6)99 (47.1)0.7695
 Statins310 (32.2)226 (49.0)< 0.000186 (41.0)91 (43.3)0.6212
 Antidepressant/antipsychotic drugs292 (30.3)187 (40.6)0.000157 (27.1)67 (31.9)0.2847
 Glucocorticoids169 (17.5)112 (24.3)0.002740 (19.0)44 (21.0)0.6256
 Sex hormones49 (5.1)35 (7.6)0.059912 (5.7)10 (4.8)0.6614
 Anticoagulants46 (4.8)52 (11.3)< 0.00018 (3.8)14 (6.7)0.1888
Healthcare resource use, mean (SD) number
 GP consultations46.7 (31.6)63.7 (37.5)< 0.000153.0 (31.7)53.4 (32.6)0.9095
 A&E visits1.1 (1.5)0.9 (1.5)0.14400.9 (1.2)0.8 (1.3)0.3481
 Outpatient, non-A&E referrals1.0 (1.6)1.3 (1.5)0.00071.2 (1.5)1.2 (1.5)0.6965
 Inpatient hospitalisation1.9 (5.3)1.6 (2.2)0.10051.4 (1.7)1.4 (1.9)0.6480
Hospitalisation days, mean (SD)10.0 (18.5)5.5 (10.4)< 0.00016.2 (12.6)6.1 (12.2)0.9715
All direct healthcare cost in the 1-year pre-index period, 2014 £
 Median (range)4572 (11–84,513)4869 (274–61,048)0.36204004 (11–48,356)3814 (274–32,349)0.8314
 Epilepsy-related cost, median (range)42 (0–24,502)0 (0–25,822)0.005142 (0–10,459)11 (0–25,822)0.7881
  1. aPrior to t-test was used to assess differences in the means between the cohorts for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables. A&E Accident & Emergency, AED Antiepileptic drug, EIAED Enzyme-inducing AED, GP General practitioner, nEAAED Non-enzyme active AED, SD Standard deviation