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Table 2 Standardised monthly total, associated and epilepsy-related healthcare cost over follow-up period in the matched population

From: Comparing healthcare cost associated with the use of enzyme-inducing and non-enzyme active antiepileptic drugs in elderly patients with epilepsy in the UK: a long-term retrospective, matched cohort study

Standardised monthly costs (2014 £) EIAED
(n = 210)
nEAAED
(n = 210)
p-value
Total all direct healthcare costsMedian (range)403 (50, 10,856)317 (49, 5630) 
Mean (SD)749 (1091)572 (710)0.0150a
A&E visitsMedian (range)1 (0, 268)0 (0, 316) 
Mean (SD)9 (24)8 (28)0.6764
AED medicationsMedian (range)16 (2, 251)8 (2, 420) 
Mean (SD)32 (38)17 (36)< 0.0001
GP practice consultationsMedian (range)159 (12, 1222)146 (37, 1264) 
Mean (SD)199 (144)195 (162)0.7953
Inpatient hospitalisationsMedian (range)92 (0, 10,032)25 (0, 4852) 
Mean (SD)422 (1007)275 (595)0.0694
Non-AED medicationsMedian (range)24 (0, 797)20 (0, 551) 
Mean (SD)46 (74)43 (62)0.6954
Outpatients, non-A&E referralsMedian (range)4 (0, 489)3 (0, 217) 
Mean (SD)18 (48)11 (23)0.0448
Test proceduresMedian (range)11 (0, 249)12 (0, 518) 
Mean (SD)23 (36)22 (45)0.8992
Total epilepsy-related direct healthcare costsMedian (range)52 (2, 4124)23 (2, 1673) 
Mean (SD)196 (473)100 (196)0.0068
  1. ap-value based on a Mann Whitney U-test comparing distributions. All other p-values are based on t-test on differences in the mean costs between the cohorts. A&E Accident & Emergency, AED Antiepileptic drug, EIAED Enzyme-inducing AED, GP General practitioner, nEAAED Non-enzyme active AED, SD Standard deviation