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Table 3 Univariable conditional logistic regression analyses of risk factors associated with multiple sclerosis in a case-control study in Kuwait

From: A matched case-control study of risk factors associated with multiple sclerosis in Kuwait

Variablesa Matched OR 95% CI p-value
Country of birth (Kuwait vs. abroad) 3.5 0.7–16.8 0.118
Education level at MS onset (≤ high school vs. > high school) 2.7 1.0–6.8 0.040
Marital status at MS onset (ever vs. never) 1.5 0.8–2.9 0.240
Household monthly income (KD)
  ≤ 600 1.0  
 601–1200 1.0 0.4–2.8 0.959
  > 1200 0.8 0.3–2.1 0.703
BMI
  < 25 1.0  
 25–29.9 1.0 0.5–2.1 0.964
  ≥ 30 1.2 0.6–2.7 0.596
Birth order (2nd or more vs. 1st) 1.1 0.6–2.2 0.732
Parents relationship
 Un-related 1.0  
 First degree cousins 0.9 0.5–1.9 0.862
 Second degree cousins 0.5 0.2–1.2 0.109
Presence during Gulf war (yes vs. no) 0.5 0.3–1.0 0.062
Family history of MS (yes vs. no) 3.5 1.6–7.7 0.002
Tobacco smoking status (yes vs. no) 2.2 0.8–6.3 0.144
Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (yes vs. no) 0.7 0.4–1.2 0.210
Regular passive smoking (yes vs. no) 1.0 0.5–1.8 0.876
Tonsillectomy before MS onset (yes vs. no) 1.1 0.4–2.9 0.808
Appendectomy before MS onset (yes vs. no) 3.0 0.8–11.1 0.099
Receiving Influenza vaccine before MS onset (yes vs. no) 0.5 0.2–0.9 0.030
Self-reported vitamin D deficiency (yes vs. no) 1.4 0.8–2.6 0.277
  1. aDistribution of area of residence, number of siblings, chicken pox, mumps and measles infections, receiving Hepatitis B virus vaccine and measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, regular exposure to solvents and history of autoimmune diseases (i.e. inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Graves’ disease) were not significantly different between MS cases and their matched controls