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Table 1 Characteristics of patients

From: Detection and recognition thresholds for five basic tastes in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease dementia

 ADDMCINDCP value
Demographics
 Number, n294314-
 Gender (M:F), n9:2015:283:110.641
 Age (years), median (IQR)83.0 (80–87)79.0 (75–84)74.0 (72–78)0.002 a
 Hypertension, %51.741.935.70.557
 Dyslipidemia, %24.130.228.60.851
 Diabetes mellitus, %10.37.014.30.696
 Number of medications, median (IQR)5.0 (1–6)4.0 (0–7)5.0 (3–7)0.490
 Smoking, %007.10.074
 Drinking, %24.111.614.30.361
Physical examinations, median (IQR)
 Height (cm)150.1 (146–160)151.0 (147–161)151.5 (148–157)0.809
 Weight (kg)50.6 (45–60)49.5 (45–58)55.2 (50–58)0.195
 Body mass index (kg/m2)22.4 (20–25)21.5 (20–23)22.1 (21–25)0.150
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)134.0 (126–140)130.0 (128–140)134.0 (126–141)0.913
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74.0 (72–80)74.0 (71–80)77.5 (73–86)0.195
 Salivary secretion volume (mL/5 min)0.8 (0.4–1.4)0.7 (0.4–1.1)0.9 (0.2–1.4)0.819
Blood tests, median (IQR)
 Total protein (g/dL), ref: 6.7–8.37.0 (6.6–7.4)6.9 (6.6–7.2)6.8 (6.6–7.3)0.698
 Albumin (g/dL), ref: 3.8–5.24.0 (3.8–4.2)4.0 (3.8–4.2)4.1 (4.0–4.3)0.426
 Zinc (μg/dL), ref: 64–11165.0 (57–72)62.0 (55–72)63.0 (59–75)0.620
Cognitive test, median (IQR)
 TDAS score18.0 (11–23)7.0 (5–12)1.0 (1–4)<0.001 b
Questionnaires, median (IQR)
 Subjective gustatory function4.0 (4–4)4.0 (4–4)4.0 (4–4)0.891
 Enjoyment of the meal4.0 (4–4)4.0 (3–4)4.0 (4–4)0.080
 Deliciousness of the meal4.0 (4–4)4.0 (4–4)4.0 (4–4)0.254
 Strength of flavor4.0 (4–4)4.0 (4–4)4.0 (4–4)0.443
  1. Gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and drinking ration were analyzed using the chi-squared test. Age, height, diastolic blood pressure, total protein, and zinc were compared by a one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test. Items other than the above were compared by the Kruskal–Wallis test followed by the Bonferroni correction
  2. ADD Alzheimer’s disease dementia, MCI mild cognitive impairment, NDC non-demented control, IQR interquartile range, TDAS Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale, ref reference values
  3. aSignificant difference between ADD and both MCI (p < 0.05) and NDC (p < 0.05)
  4. bSignificant difference between NDC and MCI (p < 0.05), between NDC and AD (p < 0.05), and between ADD and MCI (p < 0.05)
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