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Table 1 Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of included patients

From: Efficacy of andrographolide in not active progressive multiple sclerosis: a prospective exploratory double-blind, parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Variable Placebo N = 17 AP N = 20
Age (years)
 Mean ± SD 58.1 ± 7.0 59.4 ± 5.7
 Median (range) 57 (50–73) 58.5 (51–70)
Female sex, n (%) 9 (53) 15 (75)
Primary progressive, n (%) 10 (59) 10 (50)
Clinical progression in the year prior to enrolment, n (%) 10 (59) 16 (80)
Disease duration
 Mean ± SD 14.2 ± 9.6 14.9 ± 11.5
 Median (range) 11 (4–34) 11.5 (5–45)
EDSS
 Median 6 6
 Range 2.5–7.0 3.5–7.0
9-Hole Peg Test (seconds)
 Median 23.15 20.86
 Range 13.95–32.7 14.3–30.1
Timed 25-ft walk test (seconds)
 Median 13.47 10.48
 Range 5.6–89 7.6–34.6
 Not able to complete, n (%) 1 (5.6) 4 (20)
Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test z-score
 Mean + SD −1.96 ± 1.48 −1.63 ± 1.57
Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite
 Mean ± SD −0.17 ± 0.59 0.20 ± 0.35
 Median −0.14 − 0.01
 Range −2.23 −0.88
Symbol Digit Modalities Test z-score
 Mean ± SD −0.88 ± 0.99 0.03 ± 0.66
Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (μm)
 Mean ± SD 89.97 ± 15.49 90.28 ± 12.86
MRI activity (gadolinium-enhancing lesions), n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Normalized brain volume (mm3 ± SD) 1,288,183 ± 86,721 1,311,701 ± 93,647
Normalized white matter volume (mm3 ± SD) 662,732 ± 51,640 665,999 ± 48,708
Normalized grey matter volume (mm3 ± SD) 625,451 ± 41,492 645,702 ± 49,755
Brain parenchymal fraction ± SD 0.95 ± 0.02 0.95 ± 0.02
  1. SD Standard deviation. Brain Parenchymal Fraction = Normalized Brain Volume/Total Intracranial Volume. No statistically significant differences were observed between the baseline characteristics, except for the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite Wilcoxon rank-sum test (p = 0.024). Fisher’s exact test: sex, p = 0.16; phenotype, p = 0.59; baseline progression, p = 0.25