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Table 1 Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of included patients

From: Efficacy of andrographolide in not active progressive multiple sclerosis: a prospective exploratory double-blind, parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

VariablePlacebo N = 17AP N = 20
Age (years)
 Mean ± SD58.1 ± 7.059.4 ± 5.7
 Median (range)57 (50–73)58.5 (51–70)
Female sex, n (%)9 (53)15 (75)
Primary progressive, n (%)10 (59)10 (50)
Clinical progression in the year prior to enrolment, n (%)10 (59)16 (80)
Disease duration
 Mean ± SD14.2 ± 9.614.9 ± 11.5
 Median (range)11 (4–34)11.5 (5–45)
EDSS
 Median66
 Range2.5–7.03.5–7.0
9-Hole Peg Test (seconds)
 Median23.1520.86
 Range13.95–32.714.3–30.1
Timed 25-ft walk test (seconds)
 Median13.4710.48
 Range5.6–897.6–34.6
 Not able to complete, n (%)1 (5.6)4 (20)
Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test z-score
 Mean + SD−1.96 ± 1.48−1.63 ± 1.57
Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite
 Mean ± SD−0.17 ± 0.590.20 ± 0.35
 Median−0.14− 0.01
 Range−2.23−0.88
Symbol Digit Modalities Test z-score
 Mean ± SD−0.88 ± 0.990.03 ± 0.66
Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (μm)
 Mean ± SD89.97 ± 15.4990.28 ± 12.86
MRI activity (gadolinium-enhancing lesions), n (%)0 (0)0 (0)
Normalized brain volume (mm3 ± SD)1,288,183 ± 86,7211,311,701 ± 93,647
Normalized white matter volume (mm3 ± SD)662,732 ± 51,640665,999 ± 48,708
Normalized grey matter volume (mm3 ± SD)625,451 ± 41,492645,702 ± 49,755
Brain parenchymal fraction ± SD0.95 ± 0.020.95 ± 0.02
  1. SD Standard deviation. Brain Parenchymal Fraction = Normalized Brain Volume/Total Intracranial Volume. No statistically significant differences were observed between the baseline characteristics, except for the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite Wilcoxon rank-sum test (p = 0.024). Fisher’s exact test: sex, p = 0.16; phenotype, p = 0.59; baseline progression, p = 0.25