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Table 1 Characteristics of the population

From: Salt wasting syndrome in brain trauma patients: a pathophysiologic approach using sodium balance and urinary biochemical analysis

 Overall population (N = 60)Control group (N = 44)Hyponatremia day 1–7 (N = 16)p
Demographic data    
• Age (years)48 [32–60]48 [32–61]49 [22–59]0.627
• Male sex53 (88)39 (89)14 (88)0.903
• Weight (kg)76 [67–88]78 [69–90]72 [60–83]0.143
Comorbidities    
• Chronic hypertension12 (20)9 (20)3 (19)0.957
• Diabetes mellitus3 (5)3 (7)0 (0)0.501
• Previous use of ACE inhibitors5 (8)3 (7)2 (13)0.876
• Previous use of β-blockers3 (5)2 (3)1 (6)0.927
Reason for admission    
• Isolated TBI
• Multiple trauma with TBI
26 (43)
34 (57)
17 (39)
27 (61)
9 (56)
7 (44)
0.223
0.223
Prognostic scores    
• Initial GCS9 [5–14]10 [6–14]7 [4–12]0.213
• SAPS II45 [36–52]44 [36–50]39 [45–53]0.484
Neurosurgical procedures    
• Intracranial pressure monitoring35 (58)27 (57)10 (63)0.693
• External CSF derivation16 (27)10 (23)6 (38)0.253
• Parietal craniotomy17 (28)14 (32)3 (19)0.321
• Craniectomy9 (15)7 (16)2 (13)0.744
Intracranial hypertension24 (40)14 (33)9 (56)0.097
Management in the ICU    
• Use of mechanical ventilation58 (97)41 (95)16 (100)0.380
• Use of vasopressors56 (93)40 (93)15 (94)0.921
• Use of osmotherapy17 (28)10 (23)7 (44)0.122
• Use of hypothermia17 (28)10 (23)6 (38)0.274
• Use of barbiturates14 (23)8 (19)5 (31)0.297
• Use of NSAIDs10 (17)8 (19)2 (13)0.578
• Use of hydrocortisone6 (10)6 (14)0 (0)0.115
• Use of desmopressine4 (7)3 (7)1 (6)0.921
Mean fluid and sodium balances    
• Mean fluid balance (L)0.8 [0.6–1.2]0.9 [0.5–1.2]0.6 [0.6–0.9]0.115
• Mean sodium balance (mmol)41 [− 33–104]41 [−7–104]29 [−41–100]0.621
• Loss of weight0 [−1–2]0 [−2 − + 2]0 [− 1–0]0.843
Outcome    
• Death during the ICU stay7 (12)3 (7)4 (25)0.052
• Duration under ventilation9 [5–17]9 [3–17]10 [7–15]0.412
• ICU length of stay16 [11–28]15 [11–26]18 [13–24]0.616
  1. Results expressed as number (percentage) or median [interquartile 25–75]