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Table 2 Difference in cognitive performancea between treatmentb group and control group during follow-up: linear mixed model analyses

From: Pharmacological treatment of increased vascular risk and cognitive performance in middle-aged and old persons: six-year observational longitudinal study

 Cognitive performance of treatment group as compared to control group (estimated mean difference)c
Model 1dModel 2eModel 3f
Mean95%CIP valueMean95%CIP valueMean95%CIP value
First measurement−0.38− 0.48 to − 0.28< 0.001− 0.10− 0.20 to − 0.010.03− 0.04− 0.13 to 0.060.44
Second measurement−0.47− 0.57 to − 0.37< 0.001−0.15− 0.24 to − 0.060.002−0.09− 0.18 to 0.010.08
Third measurement−0.53−0.65 to − 0.41< 0.001−0.16− 0.27 to − 0.050.003−0.10− 0.21 to 0.010.08
  1. Abbreviations: 95%CI, 95% confidence interval
  2. a Cognitive performance was measured as a composite score of two tests (z-score): the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) and the Visual Association Test (VAT) [20, 22]
  3. b Treatment group included persons who had pharmacological treatment of vascular risk factors for the first time at the first measurement of cognitive function
  4. c Estimated mean difference was calculated as mean cognitive performance of treatment group minus control group
  5. d Model 1 is unadjusted; − 2*log likelihood: 10103.76
  6. e Model 2 is adjusted for age, educational level, interaction age x measurement; − 2*log likelihood: 9378.05
  7. f Model 3 is adjusted for age, educational level, interaction age x measurement, treatable vascular risk; − 2*log likelihood: 9348.58