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Table 7 Association between clinical characteristics and diagnosis of HAND

From: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders at Moi teaching and referral hospital, Eldoret, Kenya

Variable Presence of HAND P-value UOR (95% CI)
Yes (n = 292, 81.1%)
Mean (SD) or n (%)
No (n = 68, 18.9%)
Mean (SD) or n (%)
BMI (Kg/m2)
 < 18.5 24 (8.2%) 10 (14.7%) 0.099 0.56 (0.25, 1.27)
 18.5–25.0 179 (61.3%) 42 (61.8%) 0.944 Reference
 25.0–30.0 73 (25.0%) 13 (19.1%) 0.306 1.32 (0.67, 2.60)
 > 30.0 16 (5.5%) 3 (4.4%) 0.723 1.25 (0.35, 4.49)
Baseline CD4 (cells per mm3)
 < 200 103 (42.0%) 19 (32.2%) 0.166 Reference
 200–500 105 (42.9%) 27 (45.8%) 0.686 0.72 (0.38, 1.37)
 > 500 37 (15.1%) 13 (22.0%) 0.197 0.53 (0.24, 1.17)
Current CD4 (cells per mm3)
 < 200 27 (9.3%) 6 (8.8%) 0.913 Reference
 200–500 121 (41.4%) 32 (47.1%) 0.398 0.84 (0.32, 2.21)
 > 500 144 (49.3%) 30 (44.1%) 0.440 1.07 (0.41, 2.81)
WHO Clinical stage
 Stage 1 95 (34.4%) 27 (40.3%) 0.367 Reference
 Stage 2 47 (17.0%) 14 (20.9%) 0.458 0.95 (0.46, 1.99)
 Stage 3 110 (39.9%) 22 (32.8%) 0.289 1.42 (0.76, 2.66)
 Stage 4 24 (8.7%) 4 (6.0%) 0.465 1.71 (0.54, 5.34)
Have comorbidities 23 (7.9%) 5 (7.4%) 0.879 1.08 (0.40, 2.96)
Regimen
 First line (NRTI + NNRTI) 241 (82.5%) 45 (66.2%)   Reference
 Second line (NRTI + PI) 51 (17.5%) 23 (33.8%) 0.003 0.41 (0.23, 0.74)
Years on current HAART 4.4 (3.0) 3.2 (2.8) 0.002 1.16 (1.05, 1.28)
Individual HAART drugs
 EFV/ETR/ABC 139 (47.6%) 35 (51.5%) 0.565 Reference
 AZT 127 (43.5%) 18 (26.5%) 0.010 2.99 (0.49, 18.01)
 TDF 161 (55.1%) 48 (70.6%) 0.020 1.93 (0.33, 11.15)
 NVP 108 (37.0%) 12 (17.7%) 0.002 2.28 (1.11, 4.67)
Years since HIV diagnosis 8.1 (3.7) 8.4 (3.7) 0.620 0.98 (0.91, 1.06)
Viral load < 1000 copies/ml 248 (85.5%) 55 (80.9%) 0.340 1.40 (0.70, 2.77)
CPE score 7.6 (1.8) 6.8 (1.7) < 0.001 1.30 (1.11, 1.53)
  1. UOR Unadjusted Odds Ratio, 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval