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Table 1 Manual for therapists enriched Music-Supported Therapy: Instruments and movements. This table provides information about the different movements that can be trained with each instrument. For sitting exercises the patient must be seated in a chair without armrests in a comfortable position with both knees and hip at 90°. For standing exercises the patient must be standing up having the chair at their back and with feet slightly separated

From: Enriched Music-supported Therapy for chronic stroke patients: a study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

Instrument Type of movement Body position Movement description
Tambourine with beater Shoulder flexion/extension (shoulder at 90° and elbow at 0°) Sitting/Standing Position: Hold the tambourine with the unaffected extremity and the beater with the affected extremity. Both shoulders should be at 90° with the elbows at 0°.
Movement: Hit the tambourine with the beater trying to keep the elbow at 0° to produce movements of shoulder flexion and extension.
Shoulder internal/external rotation and elbow flexion/extension (elbow at 90°) Sitting/Standing Position: Hold the tambourine with the unaffected extremity and the beater with the affected extremity.
Movement: Hit the tambourine with the beater to produce movements of elbow flexion and extension.
Wrist flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) Sitting/Standing Position: Hold the tambourine with the unaffected extremity and the beater with the affected extremity.
Movement: Hit the tambourine with the beater trying to keep the elbow at 90° to produce movements of wrist flexion and extension.
Tambourine Shoulder abduction/adduction (elbow at 0°) Standing Position: Hold the tambourine with the affected extremity. Standing up, extremities should drop on either side of the body.
Movement: Hit the tambourine in the side of your leg trying to keep the elbow at 0° to produce movements of shoulder abduction/adduction.
Shoulder abduction/adduction (elbow at 0°) Standing Position: Hold the tambourine with the affected extremity. Standing up, extremities should drop on either side of the boy.
Movement: Hit the tambourine in the front of your leg trying to keep the elbow at 0° to produce movements of shoulder abduction/adduction.
Wrist flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 0°) Standing Position: Hold the tambourine with the affected extremity. Standing up, extremities should drop on either side of the body.
Movement: Hit the tambourine in the side of your leg trying to keep the elbow at 0° to produce movements of wrist flexion/extension.
Forearm supination/pronation (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) Sitting/Standing Position: Hold the tambourine with the affected extremity. The shoulder should be at 0° and elbow at 90°.
Movement: Turn your forearm up and down trying to keep the elbow at 90°.
Forearm supination/pronation (shoulder at 90° and elbow at 0°) Sitting/Standing Position: Hold the tambourine with the affected extremity. Hold the tambourine with the affected extremity. The shoulder should be at 90° and elbow at 0°.
Movement: Turn your forearm up and down trying to keep the elbow at 0°.
Maracas Elbow flexion/extension (shoulder at 0°) Sitting/Standing Position: Hold a maraca with the affected extremity.
Movement: Starting with the elbow at 90°, shake the maraca to produce movements of elbow flexion and extension.
Wrist flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) Sitting/Standing Position: Hold a maraca with the affected extremity.
Movement: Shake the maraca to produce movements of wrist flexion and extension trying to keep the elbow at 90°.
Güiro Elbow flexion/extension (no gravity) Sitting Position: Hold the güiro with the unaffected extremity and the stick with the affected extremity. The güiro can rest over the knees and both elbows should be at 0° of flexion.
Movement: Rub the sick along the notches of the güiro.
Rainstick Forearm supination/pronation (shoulder at 90° and elbow at 0°) Sitting/Standing Position: Hold the rainstick with the affected extremity. The shoulder should be at 90° with the elbow at 0°.
Movement: Turn your forearm up and down.
Egg Shaker Elbow flexion/extension (shoulder at 0°) Sitting/Standing Position: Hold the egg shaker with the affected extremity. The shoulder should be at 0° and the elbow at 90°.
Movement: Starting with the elbow at 90°, shake the egg to produce movements of elbow flexion and extension.
Elbow flexion/extension (no gravity) Sitting/Standing Position: Hold the egg shaker with the affected extremity.
Movement: Shake the egg side to side.
Wrist flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) Sitting/Standing Position: Hold the egg shaker with the affected extremity. The shoulder should be at 0° and the elbow at 90°.
Movement: Shake the egg up and down trying to keep the elbow at 90° to produce movements of wrist flexion and extension.
Castanets Fingers mass flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) Sitting Position: Hold a castanet with the affected extremity, leaving the castanet resting on the palm. The elbow should be at 90° of flexion and shoulder at 0° of flexion.
Movement: Press the castanet with the fingers to produce movements of finger mass flexion and extension.
Djembe Wrist flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) Sitting Position: Hold the djembe with the nonaffected extremity and lean it between your knees. The shoulder should be at 0° and the elbow at 90°.
Movement: Hit the djembe with the affected hand trying to keep the elbow at 90° to produce movements of wrist flexion and extension.
Elbow flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) Sitting Position: Hold the djembe with the nonaffected extremity and lean it between your knees. The shoulder should be at 0° and the elbow at 90°.
Movement: Hit the djembe with the affected hand trying to shoulder at 0° to produce movements of elbow flexion and extension.