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Table 5 Clinical features, psychological and related-disability outcomes in patients with tension-type headache depending on the time when the symptomatic medication intake (n = 136)

From: Variables associated with use of symptomatic medication during a headache attack in individuals with tension-type headache: a European study

 Early medication (n = 58)Late medication (n = 78)
Clinical Pain Features
 Gender (male/female) n (%)16 (27%) / 42 (73%)20 (26%) / 58 (74%)
 FETTH / CTTH n (%)38 (65%) / 20 (35%)44 (56%) / 34 (46%)
 Age (years)45 (42, 48)45 (41, 49)
 Headache history (years)12.5 (9.0, 15.0)9.8 (7.4, 12.2)
 Headache intensity (0–10)6.0 (5.5, 6.5)6.0 (5.6, 6.4)
 Headache frequency (days/)14.9 (12.6, 17.2)17.0 (15.2, 18.8)
 Headache duration (hours per attack)7.4 (6.2, 8.6)7.1 (6.1, 8.1)
Psychological and disability-related outcomes
 HADS-D (0–21)7.1 (6.0, 8.2)7.7 (7.0, 8.4)
 HADS-A (0–21)10.6 (9.2, 11.0)10.8 (10.0, 11.6)
 HDI-P (0–48)23.9 (20.0, 27.8)22.0 (19.7, 24.3)
 HDI-E (0–52)18.9 (15.3, 22.5)17.4 (14.6, 20.2)
 STAI-T (0–60)23.4 (21.3, 25.5)24.0 (22.3, 25.7)
 STAI-S (0–60)21.2 (19.8, 22.6)21.7 (20.3, 23.1)
 PSQI (0–21)7.7 (6.5, 8.9)8.5 (7.4, 9.6)
  1. Values are expressed as means (95% confidence interval)
  2. FETTH Frequent episodic tension type headache; CTTH Chronic tension type headache; HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (D Depression; A Anxiety), HDI Headache Disability Inventory (P Physical; E Emotional), STAI State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (T Trait; S State); PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index