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Table 2 Baseline characteristics

From: Association between in-hospital frailty and health-related quality of life after stroke: the Nor-COAST study

  N Total Robust Pre-frail Frail p-valuea
Participants – n (%) 625 625 (100) 194 (31.0) 366 (58.6) 65 (10.4)  
Age
 Mean (SD) 625 71.7 (11.6) 65.6 (11.6) 73.3 (10.6) 81.1 (7.2) < 0.001
 Range 33–96 34–92 33–96 58–95
Sex
 Female 625 263 (42.1) 53 (27.3) 170 (46.4) 40 (61.5) < 0.001
Racial category
 Caucasian 624 615 (98.6) 192 (99.5) 360 (98.4) 63 (96.9) 0.117
Education (years)
 Mean (SD) 625 12.4 (3.8) 13.7 (3.5) 12.1 (3.8) 10.2 (3.1) < 0.001
Living condition pre-stroke
 Own home without home nursing 625 579 (92.6) 193 (99.5) 343 (93.7) 43 (66.2) < 0.001
 Own home with home nursing 44 (7.0) 0 (0) 23 (6.3) 21 (32.3)
Living alone 625 207 (32.5) 42 (21.6) 125 (34.2) 36 (55.4) < 0.001
Comorbidities
 Previous cerebral stroke, n (%) 624 110 (17.6) 33 (17.0) 65 (17.8) 12 (18.5) 0.958
 Previous TIA, n (%) 29 (4.6) 9 (4.5) 16 (4.4) 4 (6.2) 0.820
 Dementia, n (%) 8 (1.3) 2 (1.0) 3 (0.1) 3 (4.6) 0.040
 Heart failure, n (%) 20 (3.2) 2 (1.0) 12 (3.3) 6 (9.2) 0.005
 COPD, n (%) 31 (5.0) 5 (2.6) 18 (4.9) 8 (12.3) 0.008
 Cancer, total, n (%) 98 (15.7) 20 (10.4) 69 (18.8) 9 (13.8) 0.029
Charlson Comorbidity Index
 Mean (SD) 625 3.8 (2.0) 2.9 (1.8) 4.1 (1.9) 5.0 (1.7) < 0.001
mRS – pre-stroke
 Mean (SD) 621 0.8 (1.0) 0.4 (0.6) 0.8 (0.9) 1.8 (1.3) < 0.001
  ≥ 2 points, n (%) 396 (63.8) 81 (42.0) 257 (70.4) 58 (89.2)
Nottingham EADL – pre-stroke
 Mean (SD) 619 57.6 (10.4) 62.0 (5.5) 57.1 (10.2) 46.9 (13.8) < 0.001
GDS - pre-stroke
 Mean (SD) 619 1.4 (0.8) 1.1 (0.4) 1.5 (0.8) 2.0 (1.2) < 0.001
  ≥ 3 points, n (%) 64 (10.3) 3 (1.6) 41 (11.3) 20 (30.8)
Stroke classification
 Cerebral infarction 625 574 (91.8) 182 (93.8) 331 (90.4) 61 (93.8) 0.545
 Cerebral haemorrhage 51 (8.2) 12 (6.2) 35 (9.6) 4 (6.2)
NIHSS, day 1
 Mean (SD) 611 2.8 (4.0) 1.8 (3.9) 3.1 (4.0) 4.0 (3.9) < 0.001
 0–4 points, n (%) 500 (81.8) 178 (93.7) 279 (78.2) 43 (67.0)
 5–15 points, n (%) 99 (16.2) 9 (4.7) 69 (19.3) 21 (32.8)
 16–20 points, n (%) 7 (1.1) 1 (0.5) 6 (1.7) 0 (0)
  > 20 points, n (%) 5 (0.8) 2 (1.0) 3 (0.8) 0 (0)
MoCA – in-hospital
 Mean (SD) 571 23.5 (5.0) 25.4 (3.9) 23.2 (4.9) 19.4 (5.3) < 0.001
  1. N is the number of participants with data on the required test or question
  2. All measures are given as n (%) unless otherwise stated
  3. aLinear-by-linear associations for dichotomous variables; Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables;
  4. COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; NIHSS National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, range 0-34p; mRS Modified Rankin Scale, range 0-6p; GDS Global Deterioration Scale; range 0-7p; MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, range 0-30p; Nottingham EADL Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living scale, range 0-66p