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Table 5 Patients characteristics and findings of the included case reports

From: Neurological manifestations and complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable   N (%) or Mean ± SD Variable   N (%) or Mean ± SD
Number Cases 57 Clinical features Fever 41 (71.9%)
Articles 20 Cough 34 (59.6%)
Countries of the cases reported China 28 (49.1%)   Fatigue 14 (25.6%)
Italy 12 (21.0%) Myalgia 12 (21.0%)
USA 6 (10.5%) Headache 5 (8.8%)
Norway 3 (5.3%) Dizziness 2 (3.5%)
Iran 2 (3.5%) Taste impairment 11 (19.3%)
Spain 2 (3.5%) Smell impairment 13 (22.8%)
France 1 (1.8%) Encephalopathy features 5 (8.8%)
Germany 1 (1.8%) Weakness/ paralysis 7 (12.3%)
Japan 1 (1.8%) Altered reflexes 3 (5.3%)
UK 1 (1.8%) Altered sensationc 5 (8.8%)
Age (Years)   59.5 ± 20.2 Ataxia or abnormal gait 1 (1.8%)
Gender Male 38 (66.6%) Facial weakness 4 (7%)
Female 19 (33.3%) Neck pain/ rigidity 2 (3.5%)
Comorbidities Any 24 (42.1%) Number of neurological manifestations None 20 (35.0%)
DM 7 (12.3%) 1–2 27 (47.3%)
Hypertension 13 (22.8%) > 3 10 (17.5%)
Cardiovascular diseases 9 (15.7%) Neurological complications Any 12 (21.0%)
Neurological diseases 8 (14.0%) GBS 6 (10.5%)
Chronic liver diseases 3 (5.2%) Encephalitis 2 (3.5%)
Pulmonary diseases 5 (8.8%) Seizure 2 (3.5%)
Malignancy or cancer 1 (1.8%) Cerebral Hemorrhage 1 (1.8%)
Chronic kidney disease 4 (7%) Myelitis 1 (1.8%)
ICU Yes 16 out of 28 (57.1%) Rhabdomyolysis 1 (1.8%)
No 12 out of 28 (42.8%) Onset (Days)a 7.25 ± 2.43
Onset (Days) a 7.7 ± 2.9 Imaging CT/MRI changes 6 (10.5%)
Ventilator Yes 11 out of 31 (35.4%) CSF Increased protein 5 (8.8%)
No 20 out of 31 (64.5%) SARS-CoV-2 RNA in CSF 1 (1.8%)
Onset (Days) a 7 ± 2.49 EEG Temporal slowing and sharp waves 1 (1.8%)
Severity of COVID-19 Asymptomatic 3 (5.3%) Nerve conduction study/EMG Demyelinating or Axonal patterns 6 (10.5%)
Non-severe 19 (33.3%) Neurology-related management   12 (21%)
Severe 30 (52.6%) Neurological outcome Morbidity/ disability 4 out of 16(25%)
COVID-19 disease outcome Death 20 out of 45(44.4%) Recovery/ Improvement 10 out of 16(62.5%)
Discharged/ Recovery 18 out of 45(40%) Still hospitalized 2 out of 16(12.5%)
Still hospitalized 7 out of 45(15.5%) Onset (Days)a,b 15.5 (2.5)
  1. Some data are missing or not reported. All patients in the aforementioned case reports were confirmed to have COVID-19
  2. GBS Guillain–Barré Syndrome
  3. a Onset in relation to the onset of COVID-19 symptoms
  4. bReported as median and IQR
  5. c Altered sensation included paresthesia, numbness, loss of pain, temperature, or tactile sensations of the lower limbs, upper limbs, or trunk