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Table 2 Descriptive data indicated as mean and standard deviation (SD) at baseline (t0) and after the intervention (t1)

From: Learning to play golf for elderly people with subjective memory complaints: feasibility of a single‐blinded randomized pilot trial

outcome group n t0 (mean, SD) t1 (mean, SD) ANCOVA time*group (p, F, Cohen’s d) post-hoc analysis
(p, 95 % CI)
ADAS-Cog1 (score) golf 22 7.45 (2.46) 6.82 (2.67) 0.613, 0.260, 0.17  
control 19 7.68 (3.40) 6.58 (2.97)  
Corsi forward1 (no. of sequences) golf 22 7.91 (1.31) 7.77 (2.02) 0.641, 0.221, 0.16  
control 19 6.74 (2.13) 7.16 (2.43)  
Corsi backwards1 (no. of sequences) golf 23 6.48 (2.35) 6.65 (2.77) 0.921, 0.010, 0  
control 19 6.26 (2.96) 6.42 (3.15)  
TMT B time1 (s) golf 22 49.44 (18.87) 47.58 (12.57) 0.305, 1.085, 0.35  
control 18 49.81 (22.25) 52.66 (29.03)  
INHIB reaction time1 (ms) golf 22 0.37 (0.05) 0.36 (0.05) 0.975, 0.000, 0  
control 19 0.35 (0.04) 0.35 (0.05)  
INHIB correct responses1 (%) golf 22 91.36 (6.84) 95.27 (3.24) 0.012*, 7.050, 0.89 0.000*, (2.075, 4.884)
control 18 92.87 (4.27) 93.07 (4.41) 0.349, (− 0.827, 2.280)
KYN2 (µmol/L) golf 22 1.69 (0.55) 1.84 (0.74) 0.418, 0.671, 0.28  
control 17 2.04 (0.99) 2.19 (0.85)  
TRP2 (µmol/L) golf 22 127.48 (25.68) 129.67 (16.39) 0.464, 0.548, 0.26  
control 17 129.67 (20.90) 126.56 (21.13)  
KYN/TRP ratio2 golf 22 0.014 (0.005) 0.014 (0.005) 0.087, 3.108, 0.61  
control 17 0.016 (0.006) 0.017 (0.006)  
KYNA (µmol/L)2 golf 22 0.093 (0.023) 0.095 (0.031) 0.926, 0.009, 0  
control 17 0.105 (0.048) 0.105 (0.039)  
KYNA/KYN ratio2 golf 22 0.058 (0.02) 0.057 (0.02) 0.598, 0.284, 0.18  
control 17 0.057 (0.02) 0.054 (0.03)  
QUINA (µmol/L)2 golf 21 0.72 (0.24) 0.67 (0.22) 0.224, 1.537, 0.43  
control 17 0.71 (0.24) 0.73 (0.19)  
QUINA/KYNA ratio2 golf 21 8.20 (2.32) 7.38 (1.69) 0.227, 1.513, 0.43  
control 17 7.43 (2.65) 7.64 (2.92)  
QUINA/TRP golf 21 0.0058 (0.002) 0.0051 (0.001) 0.022*, 5.769, 0.84 0.022*, (0, 0.001)
  control 17 0.0057 (0.002) 0.0059 (0.002) 0.527, (-0.001, 0)
QUINA/KYN golf 21 0.456 (0.145) 0.406 (0.154) 0.869, 0.028, 0.06  
  control 17 0.394 (0.141) 0.364 (0.107  
IL-6 (pg/ml)2 golf 22 1.54 (0.59) 1.82 (0.97) 0.607, 0.270, 0.18  
control 15 2.05 (1.17) 2.16 (1.33)  
6-Min-Walk-Test1 (m) golf 23 651.65 (115.75) 653.58 (153.82) 0.439, 0.613, 0.26  
control 16 646.21 (91.12) 673.78 (106.33)  
PASE (score)1 golf 21 180.86 (59.02) 171.05 (45.72) 0.056, 3.888, 0.66  
control 19 153.37 (57.05) 137.50 (37.91)  
  1. Results of baseline-adjusted ANCOVA are presented (time, time*group) with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise post-hoc analysis for each parameter. * indicate statistical significant changes or differences at p < 0.05. ADAS-Cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale, TMT Trail Making Test, INHIB Response Inhibition, KYN Kynurenine, TRP Tryptophan, KYNA Kynurenic acid, QUINA Quinolinic acid, IL-6 Interleukin 6, PASE Physical Activity Scale for Elderly, FDR False Discovery Rate (Benjamini Hochberg Procedure) 1adjusted for age, 2 adjusted for age and mean change of BMI (t1-t0)