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Table 1 Clinical characteristics, investigation findings, treatment and outcome of antibody-positive and antibody-negative AE patients

From: Autoimmune encephalitis in a South Asian population

Characteristic Clinically diagnosed NMDARE Clinically diagnosed LE
n (%)
Total
N (%)
NMDAR-Ab positive
n (%)
NMDAR-Ab negativea
n (%)
NMDAR-Ab positive Vs negative
p-value
Patients 65 (100) 29 (20.4) 36 (25.4)   6 (4.2)
Mean age (SD) 25.6 (20.3) 19.3 (11.9) 30.7 (24.1) 0.01 47.2 (17.5)
Females 42 (64.6) 22 (75.9) 20 (55.5) 0.09 5 (83.3)
Clinical manifestations
 Decreased level of consciousness 58 (89.2) 23 (79.3) 35 (97.2) 0.01 4 (66.6)
 Abnormal (psychiatric) behaviour or cognitive dysfunction 62 (95.3) 27 (93.1) 35 (97.2) 0.43 6 (100)
  Amnesia/working memory deficits 28 (43.0) 9 (31.0) 19 (52.8) 0.08 3 (50)
  Confusion/disorientation in time, place or person 56 (86.1) 24 (82.8) 32 (88.9) 0.48 6 (100)
  Visual hallucinations 19 (29.2) 9 (31.0) 10 (27.8) 0.77 1 (16.6)
  Auditory hallucinations 15 (23.1) 8 (27.6) 7 (19.4) 0.44 0
  Insomnia 24 (36.9) 12 (41.4) 12 (33.3) 0.50 3 (50.0)
  Agitation 36 (55.4) 19 (65.5) 17 (47.2) 0.14 5 (83.3)
  Catatonia 23 (35.4) 9 (31.0) 14 (38.9) 0.51 0
  Obsessive thoughts or actions 13 (20.0) 6 (20.7) 7 (19.4) 0.90 0
 Speech dysfunction 30 (46.1) 7 (24.1) 23 (63.9) 0.001 0
 Seizures 53 (81.5) 25 (86.2) 28 ((77.7) 0.38 6 (100)
  Focal 32 (49.2) 15 (51.7) 17 (47.2) 0.72 2 (33.3)
  Generalised 34 (52.3) 15 (51.7) 19 (52.8) 0.93 4 (66.6)
  Status epilepticus 18 (27.7) 9 (31.0) 9 (25) 0.59 1 (16.6)
  Faciobrachial dystonic seizures 0 0 0 0 0
 Movement disorders 45 (69.2) 17 (58.6) 28 (77.7) 0.09 0
  Orofacial dyskinesia 30 (46.2) 11 (37.9) 19 (52.8) 0.23 0
  Limb dyskinesia 25 (38.2) 10 (34.5) 15 (41.7) 0.55 0
  Parkinsonism 5 (7.7) 1 (3.4) 4 (11.1) 0.25 0
 Dysautonomia 16 (24.6) 6 (20.6) 10 (27.7) 0.51 0
  Hyperhidrosis 4 (6.2) 2 (6.9) 2 (5.6) 0.83 0
  Hypersalivation 9 (13.8) 4 (13.8) 5 (13.9) 0.99 0
  Fluctuating heart rate 6 (9.2) 2 (6.9) 2 (5.6) 0.56 0
  Fluctuating blood pressure 4 (6.2) 2 (6.9) 2 (5.6) 0.83 0
  Central hypoventilation 0 0 0   0
 Tumours 0 0 0   0
Investigations
 CSF protein elevated (number/of available data) 21/57 (36.8) 7/24 (29.2) 14/33 (42.2) 0.31 3/5 (60.0)
 CSF pleocytosis (number/of available data) 22/58 (37.9) 10/26 (38.5) 12/32 (37.5) 0.94 5/5 (100.0)
 Abnormal EEG (number/of available data) 46/56 (82.1) 14/22 (63.6) 32/34 (94.1) 0.003 2/4 (50.0)
 Abnormal MRI (number/of available data) 13/40 (32.5) 4/16 (25.0) 9/24 (37.5) 0.41 1/3 (33.3)
Treatment
 Intravenous methylprednisolone 41 (63.0) 20 (68.9) 21 (58.3) 0.38 6 (100)
 Intravenous immunoglobulins 34 (52.3) 17 (58.6) 17 (47.2) 0.36 2 (33.3)
 Plasmapheresis 35 (53.8) 19 (65.5) 16 (44.4) 0.09 0
 Rituximab 6 (9.2) 4 (13.8) 2 (5.5) 0.25 0
 Mycophenolate mofetil 2 (3.0) 1 (3.4) 1 (2.7) 0.25 0
 Anti-epileptic medication 37 (56.9) 16 (55.1) 21 (58.3) 0.79 4 (66.6)
Outcome at one-year review
 Recovery to mRS < 3 (number/of available data) 41/60 (68.3) 23/29 (79.3) 18/31 (58.0) 0.07 3/5 (60.0)
 Deaths 14/60 (23.3) 4 (13.8) 10 (27.8) 0.17 2 (33.3)
  1. aCSF was tested first. Serum was tested only in those without detectable antibodies in CSF. None were seropositive