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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of hemispheres with and without postoperative complications

From: Risk factors for postoperative ischemic complications in pediatric moyamoya disease

Characteristics Total (n = 533) Postop Complications P value
Present (n = 51) Absent (n = 482)
Mean age at op (yrs) 9.6 ± 3.7 10.9 ± 4.1 9.5 ± 3.6 0.008
Sex, female/male ratio 272/261 27/24 245/237 0.774
Clinical presentation
 Ischemic 366 (68.7) 31 (60.8) 335 (69.5) 0.429
  Infarction 132 (24.8) 12 (23.5) 120 (24.9)  
  TIA 234 (43.9) 19 (37.3) 215 (44.6)  
 Hemorrhagic 28 (5.3) 3 (5.9) 25 (5.2)  
 Nonspecific 139 (26.1) 17 (33.3) 122 (25.3)  
  Headache 38 (7.1) 6 (11.8) 32 (6.6)  
  Epilepsy 38 (7.1) 5 (9.8) 33 (6.8)  
  Asymptomatic 63 (11.8) 6 (11.8) 57 (11.8)  
Admission mRS score
 Mean 1.4 ± 0.6 1.5 ± 0.6 1.4 ± 0.6 0.260
 0–1 371 (69.6) 31 (60.8) 340 (70.5) 0.150
 2–5 162 (30.4) 20 (39.2) 142 (29.5)  
Past medical history
 Family history 38 (7.1) 4 (7.8) 34 (7.1) 1.000
 Hypertension 7 (1.3) 1 (2.0) 6 (1.2) 1.000
 Thyroid disease 4 (0.8) 1 (2.0) 3 (0.6) 0.841
 Hyperlipidemia 3 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.6) 1.000
 Smoking & Alcohol use 2 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.4) 1.000
 Diabetes 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2) 1.000
Suzuki stagea
 Mean 2.9 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.9 0.238
 1 12 (2.4) 0 (0.0) 12 (2.7) 0.268
 2 154 (31.1) 14 (29.2) 140 (31.3)  
 3 216 (43.6) 20 (41.7) 196 (43.8)  
 4 96 (19.4) 12 (25.0) 84 (18.8)  
 5 17 (3.4) 2 (4.2) 15 (3.4)  
PCA involvementa 116 (23.4) 18 (37.5) 98 (21.9) 0.015
Collateral circulationa
 Mean 7.0 ± 1.8 6.3 ± 2.1 7.0 ± 1.8 0.019
 Grade I (0–4) 54 (10.9) 12 (25.0) 42 (9.4)  
 Grade II (5–8) 342 (69.1) 26 (54.2) 316 (70.7)  
 Grade III (9–12) 99 (20.0) 10 (20.8) 89 (19.9)  
ECA collaterala
 STA collateral 4 (0.8) 1 (2.1) 3 (0.7) 0.849
 MMA collateral 197 (39.8) 21 (43.8) 176 (39.4) 0.556
 OA collateral 29 (5.9) 4 (8.3) 25 (5.6) 0.656
Surgical modalities
 Indirect bypass 447 (83.9) 40 (78.4) 407 (84.4) 0.540
 Direct bypass 70 (13.1) 9 (17.6) 61 (12.7)  
 Combined bypass 16 (3.0) 2 (3.9) 14 (2.9)  
Mean LOS (days) 15 (13–18) 20.0 ± 8.8 15.3 ± 3.8 0.000
Discharge mRS score
 Mean 1.4 ± 0.6 1.7 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.6 0.000
 0–1 378 (70.9) 22 (43.1) 356 (73.9) 0.000
 2–5 155 (29.1) 29 (56.9) 126 (26.1)  
  1. ECA External carotid artery, LOS Length of hospital stay, MMA Middle meningeal artery, OA Occipital artery, PCA Posterior cerebral artery, STA Superficial temporal artery, TIA Transient ischemic attacking
  2. a495 hemispheres received DSA