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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics by treatment sequence at baselinea

From: Home-based light therapy for fatigue following acquired brain injury: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Baseline variables Treatment-placebo (n = 16) Placebo-treatment sequence (n = 8) Total (N = 24)
M SD M SD M SD
Age (years) 43.13 10.67 46.75 13.13 44.33 11.39
Gender (female) 7 (43.75%)   3 (37.50%)   10 (41.66%)  
Injury type (TBI) 14 (87.50%)   5 (62.50%)   19 (79.17%)  
BFI 5.33 1.75 6.75 0.85 5.81 1.64
FSS 5.07 1.27 5.85 0.64 5.33 1.15
ESS 7.69 3.89 10.25 5.20 8.54 4.43
PSQI 7.81 4.09 9.38 4.03 8.33 4.05
ISI 13.19 5.72 13.25 6.80 13.21 5.95
HADS (Depression) 6.31 3.40 8.25 3.01 6.96 3.34
PVT: mean RTb 345.82 89.11 332.68 62.96 321.58 52.41
PVT: Fastest 10% RTb 255.07 41.58 252.63 28.69 245.50 27.32
POPS -0.12 0.53 -0.50 0.44 -0.24 0.52
Productive Activity (%) 85.82 12.28 84.17 9.67 85.16 10.96
Sleep onsetc,d 22.90 0.87 23.62 0.98 23.13 0.95
Sleep offsetc,d 30.95 0.64 31.12 1.05 31.00 0.77
SOLc 16.40 12.66 21.19 12.66 17.91 12.52
WASOc 45.38 20.32 40.25 13.18 43.76 18.15
TSTc 437.29 31.73 426.73 66.72 433.96 43.97
Sleep efficiency (%)c 86.40 4.67 85.67 5.06 86.17 4.66
  1. Notes. Baseline data is for participants who completed the study and were included in analyses
  2. Abbreviations: BFI Brief Fatigue Inventory, ESS Epworth Sleepiness Scale FSS Fatigue Severity Scale, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, ISI Insomnia Severity Index, POPS Participation Objective Participation Subjective (Objective Subscale only), PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PVT Psychomotor Vigilance Task, SOL Sleep onset latency, TST Total sleep time, WASO Wake after sleep onset
  3. aData are mean (M) and standard deviation (SD), or percentage values, of participant demographics and baseline characteristics shown for each treatment group
  4. bN = 18; results not available for some participants due to equipment failure
  5. cN = 19; results not available for some participants due to equipment failure
  6. dClock times were converted to 24 h time with decimals. Sleep offset times were adjusted + 12 to reflect a later time than sleep onset numerically