Skip to main content

Table 1 Food items based on the validated Iranian food frequency questionnaire, categorized into food groups according to their nature

From: Association between multiple sclerosis and dietary patterns based on the traditional concept of food nature: a case-control study in Iran

  Food groups Foods items
1 Cold-natured meats Cow and veal meat, hen and chicken, fish and seafood, canned tuna, hamburgers, brain-sausages, bologna, and pizza.
2 Additives Chips, cheese balls, sugar cubes, sugar, honey, jam, cola, traditional sweet snacks, chocolate, sugarplum, candy, halva, pepper, chili sauce, salted vegetables, pickles, salt, condiments, cake, confectionery, biscuits, and crackers.
3 Cold-natured fruits Watermelon, apricot, cherries, peaches, nectarine, greengages, grapefruit, oranges, tangerines, pomegranates, plums, and strawberries.
4 Fats Butter, olive oil, animal fat, margarine, and hydrogenated vegetable oil.
5 Acidic seasonings Lime, lemon juice, and vinegar
  Nuts and dried fruits Dried fig, date, resin, dried berries, dried apricot, dried plum; all nuts (pistachio, almond, walnuts, hazelnuts, peanuts, etc.)
6 Hot-natured meats Sheep meat, eggs, and organ meats (tongue, rumen, face meat, foot, heart, and liver)
7 Hot and balanced fruits Pear, apple, fresh berries, cantaloupe, melon, fig, grapes, kiwifruit, persimmon, banana, fruit juices, and compote.
8 Legumes Lentil, soya bean, peas, split peas, and all beans.
9 Cold-natured starches Baguette bread, toast, spaghetti, vermicelli, barley, potato, and broad beans
10 Dairy Milk (low fat and high fat), yogurt (low fat and high fat), condensed yogurt, yogurt drink, icecream, cheese curds, creamy cheese, and cream.
11 Hot and balanced starches Traditional bread (Lavash, Barbari, Sangak, Taftoon), noodles, wheat, rice, flour, bulgur, pumpkin, green peas, and corn.