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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Persistent hyperglycemia is a useful glycemic pattern to predict stroke mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author, year of publication Name of study or source of participants Years of sample collection Definition of hyperglycemia (glucose) Definition of persistent hyperglycemia (glucose measured at) Patterns of hyperglycemia Outcome (mortality) Participants Male Numbers of 30-d death Numbers of short-term cerebral hemorrhage
Mi D et al. 2018 [14] Tiantan Hospital 2014–2016 7.8 mmol/L 0b, 24b hours [1–4]a 30-day 91 Chinese 65 1 1 12 1 1 2 13 2
Li G et al. 2018 Qilu Hospital 2008–2009 Admission: 7.8 mmol/L;
In-patient: 6.1 mmol/L
0 h;
1, 2, 3, 5, 7 days
[1–4] 3-month 150 Chinese 73 1 5 2 4 NA
Yong M et al. 2008 [10] ECASS-II 1996–1998 140 mg/dl 0, 24 h [1–4] 30-day 587 Westerners (nondiabetic) 100 8 14 14 20 44 28 18 163
Yong M (2) et al. 2008 [10] ECASS-II 161 Westerners (diabetic) 4 2 9 2 9 6 42 10
Feng W et al. 2012 [17] NA 2012 150 mg/dl Duration: 72 h low/high 3-month 135 Westerners 31 Low:18; high:23 NA
Wu T et al. 2017 [8] HICHS 2005–2016 8.0 mmol/L 24, 24–72 h [1–4] 6-month 576 Westerners 342 36 5 70 26 NA
Merlino G et al. 2020 [9] Udine University Hospital 2015–2019 >  140 mg/dL 0, 24 h [1–4] 3-month 200 Westerners 101 12 3 4 21 9 2 4 110
Ntaios G et al. 2010 ASTRAL 2003–2009 8.0 mmol/L 0, 24–48 h Low/high 3-month 421 Westerners 240 Low:124; high:60 NA
Fuentes B et al. 2010 [12] GLIAS 2002–2003 155 mg/dl 2 times in 0–48 h [1–3] 3-month 476 Westerners 234 [1–3] 8, 15, 28
Hou D et al. 2021 [18] Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital 2017–2020 11.1 mmol/L 4 times a day for 7–14 days With/without PH 1-month 200 Chinese 105 With: 11; without:6 NA
  1. Abbreviations: ECASS-II European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study-II, NA Not available, HICHS Helsinki Intracranial Cerebral Hemorrhage Study, ASTRAL Acute STroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne, GLISAS Glycemia in Acute Stroke, PH Persistent hyperglycemia
  2. a [1–4]: four patterns of hyperglycemia; 1 for admission hyperglycemia; 2 for short-duration hyperglycemia; 3 for persistent hyperglycemia; and 4 for persistent normoglycemia; b 0 h: at admission; and 24 h: 24 h after the patient admission