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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Persistent hyperglycemia is a useful glycemic pattern to predict stroke mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author, year of publication

Name of study or source of participants

Years of sample collection

Definition of hyperglycemia (glucose)

Definition of persistent hyperglycemia (glucose measured at)

Patterns of hyperglycemia

Outcome (mortality)

Participants

Male

Numbers of 30-d death

Numbers of short-term cerebral hemorrhage

Mi D et al. 2018 [14]

Tiantan Hospital

2014–2016

7.8 mmol/L

0b, 24b hours

[1–4]a

30-day

91 Chinese

65

1

1

12

1

1

2

13

2

Li G et al. 2018

Qilu Hospital

2008–2009

Admission: 7.8 mmol/L;

In-patient: 6.1 mmol/L

0 h;

1, 2, 3, 5, 7 days

[1–4]

3-month

150 Chinese

73

1

5

2

4

NA

Yong M et al. 2008 [10]

ECASS-II

1996–1998

140 mg/dl

0, 24 h

[1–4]

30-day

587 Westerners (nondiabetic)

100

8

14

14

20

44

28

18

163

Yong M (2) et al. 2008 [10]

ECASS-II

161 Westerners (diabetic)

4

2

9

2

9

6

42

10

Feng W et al. 2012 [17]

NA

2012

150 mg/dl

Duration: 72 h

low/high

3-month

135 Westerners

31

Low:18; high:23

NA

Wu T et al. 2017 [8]

HICHS

2005–2016

8.0 mmol/L

24, 24–72 h

[1–4]

6-month

576 Westerners

342

36

5

70

26

NA

Merlino G et al. 2020 [9]

Udine University Hospital

2015–2019

>  140 mg/dL

0, 24 h

[1–4]

3-month

200 Westerners

101

12

3

4

21

9

2

4

110

Ntaios G et al. 2010

ASTRAL

2003–2009

8.0 mmol/L

0, 24–48 h

Low/high

3-month

421 Westerners

240

Low:124; high:60

NA

Fuentes B et al. 2010 [12]

GLIAS

2002–2003

155 mg/dl

2 times in 0–48 h

[1–3]

3-month

476 Westerners

234

[1–3]

8, 15, 28

Hou D et al. 2021 [18]

Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital

2017–2020

11.1 mmol/L

4 times a day for 7–14 days

With/without PH

1-month

200 Chinese

105

With: 11; without:6

NA

  1. Abbreviations: ECASS-II European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study-II, NA Not available, HICHS Helsinki Intracranial Cerebral Hemorrhage Study, ASTRAL Acute STroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne, GLISAS Glycemia in Acute Stroke, PH Persistent hyperglycemia
  2. a [1–4]: four patterns of hyperglycemia; 1 for admission hyperglycemia; 2 for short-duration hyperglycemia; 3 for persistent hyperglycemia; and 4 for persistent normoglycemia; b 0 h: at admission; and 24 h: 24 h after the patient admission