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Table 1 Summary of investigations

From: A case report of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine–associated encephalitis

Investigation Result
Microbiology and virology
 SARS-CoV-2 PCR (multiple) Negative
 Extended respiratory viral PCR a Negative
 Urine microscopy & culture Negative
 HIV-1/-2 serology (serum) Negative
 Hepatitis B & C serology (serum) Negative
 Syphilis serology (serum) Negative
 Measles, mumps, rubella serology (serum) Immune
 Cryptococcal antigen (serum) Negative
 Stool norovirus & enterovirus PCR Negative
 Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) serology (serum) Negative
 Leptospira spp. IgG & IgM (EIA) (serum) Negative
 Tick borne encephalitis virus IgG (IF) (serum) Negative
 West Nile Virus IgG & IgM (ELISA) (serum) Negative
Urinary tests
 Urinary porphyrins Negative
 Urinary drugs of abuseb Negative
Serum
 B12, folate, TSH Normal
 Vitamin D Deficient (31 nmol/L), replaced to 68 nmol/L
 ANA, ENAc Negative
 Rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP Ab Negative
 Anti-cardiolipin Ab, dsDNA Ab Negative
 Anti-GAD Ab Negative
 Anti-VGCC Ab Negative
 Anti-CASPR2 Ab Negative
 Anti-LG-1 Ab Negative
 DPPX immunoglobulins Negative
 Anti-neuronal Ab panel (Hu, Ri,GAD, amphiphysin, CV2, Ma1, Ma2, SOX-1, Tr-DNER)d Negative
 Anti-NMDA receptor Ab Negative
 Anti-GABA-A/-B Ab Negative
 Anti-AMPA Ab Negative
 Aquaporin-4 Ab Negative
 Anti-MOG Ab Negative
 Serum oligoclonal bands (paired) Negative (CSF positive)
CSF
 HSV type I & II DNA Negative
 VZV DNA Negative
 Enterovirus RNA Negative
 CMV DNA Negative
 EBV DNA Negative
 HHV-6 DNA Negative
 AAFB microscopy/culture & TB PCR Negative
 Anti-NMDA receptor Ab Negative
 Anti-LG-1 Ab Negative
 Anti-CASPR2 Ab Negative
 CSF oligoclonal bands (paired) Positive (IgG band) (serum negative)
 Immunophenotyping Not performed (normal WCC on third CSF sample)
  1. aIncorporating influenza A/B, RSV, parainfluenza type 1–4, metapneumovirus, adenovirus, rhinovirus
  2. bIncorporating testing for: Opiates; opioids; cannabinoids; cocaine; amphetamines; MDMA; benzodiazepines; ketamine
  3. cIncorporating extractable nuclear antibodies, ribonucleoprotein antibodies, Smith antibodies, Ro antibodies, La antibodies, Jo-1 antibodies, Scl-70 antibodies, centromere antibodies
  4. dIncorporating antibodies to Purkinje cells, anti-Tr antibodies, other cerebellar cells, IgG white matter (myelin), anti-Hu, anti-Yo, anti-Ri, anti-Ma-1, anti-Ma-2, anti-CV2 (CRMP-5), anti-amphiphysin, anti-Zic-4, anti-Sox 1, anti-Tr antibody DNER antigen, anti-GAD immunoblotting