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Table 2 Individual and combined cerebral small vessel disease markers and incident walking speed limitation (n = 331)

From: Cerebral small vessel disease, cardiovascular risk factors, and future walking speed in old age: a population-based cohort study

cSVD markers   No. of No. of Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
  subjects cases Model 1a Model 2a
WMH volume, continuous 331 76 1.38 (1.15-1.66) 1.40 (1.11-1.76)
WMH volume 1st Tertile 118 17 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
  2nd Tertile 126 27 1.31 (0.71-2.41) 1.70 (0.77-3.79)
  3rd Tertile 87 32 2.35 (1.30-4.25) 2.78 (1.31-5.89)
  P for trend    0.003 0.01
Lacunes No 294 61 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
  Yes 37 15 1.81 (1.02-3.21) 1.43 (0.70-2.92)
PVS score, continuous 331 76 1.02 (0.97-1.08) 1.08 (1.01-1.15)
PVS score 1st Tertile 103 21 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
  2nd Tertile 121 26 0.81 (0.45-1.44) 1.15 (0.57-2.32)
  3rd Tertile 107 29 1.21 (0.69-2.13) 2.13 (1.04-4.36)
  P for trend    0.45 0.04
cSVD burden, continuous   331 76 1.62 (1.21-2.16) 1.95 (1.31-2.89)
cSVD burden 0 159 21 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
  1 118 36 2.36 (1.38-4.05) 2.34 (1.20-4.58)
  2 or 3 54 19 2.58 (1.38-4.81) 3.78 (1.70-8.45)
  P for trend    0.001 0.001
  1. a Model 1: unadjusted; Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, education, the Mini-Mental State Examination score, cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., physical inactivity, heavy alcohol consumption, smoking, hypertension, body mass index, cholesterol, diabetes), C-reactive protein, number of chronic diseases, and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases
  2. cSVD cerebral small vessel disease, WMH white matter hyperintensities, PVS  perivascular spaces