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Table 2 Risk of COVID-19 among individuals with neurodegenerative diseases, compared to individuals without such condition, an analysis of UK Biobank data

From: COVID-19 related outcomes among individuals with neurodegenerative diseases: a cohort analysis in the UK biobank

Characteristics No.(%)of any COVID-19 cases Odds Ratio No.(%)of Inpatient COVID-19 Odds Ratio No.(%)of COVID-19 related death Odds Ratio
Exposed Unexposed (95% CI) Exposed Unexposed (95% CI) Exposed Unexposed (95% CI)
Sex
 Female 347/1230 (28.2) 9082/50369 (18.0) 2.81 (2.46–3.21) 164/1230 (13.3) 2519/50369 (5.0) 2.46 (2.06–2.93) 76/1230 (6.2) 355/50369 (0.7) 4.27 (3.26–5.59)
 Male 371/1387 (26.7) 8138/43289 (18.8) 2.20 (1.94–2.50) 215/1387 (15.5) 2851/43289 (6.6) 1.99 (1.70–2.33) 119/1387 (8.6) 631/43289 (1.5) 3.37 (2.72–4.17)
Age, years
  ≤ 66 50/187 (26.7) 8736/30254 (28.9) 1.05 (0.76–1.47) 28/187 (15.0) 1776/30254 (5.9) 2.06 (1.36–3.14) 7/187 (3.7) 87/30254 (0.3) 4.01 (1.63–9.89)
 67–75 95/436 (21.8) 4046/26367 (15.3) 1.44 (1.14–1.82) 47/436 (10.8) 1287/26367 (4.9) 1.59 (1.15–2.19) 20/436 (4.6) 219/26367 (0.8) 3.13 (1.91–5.15)
  ≥ 76 573/1994 (28.7) 4438/37037 (12.0) 2.73 (2.46–3.03) 304/1994 (15.2) 2307/37037 (6.2) 2.25 (1.97–2.57) 168/1994 (8.4) 680/37037 (1.8) 4.03 (3.36–4.83)
BMI, kg/m2
  < 24.9 182/696 (26.1) 4424/27367 (16.2) 3.09 (2.58–3.71) 91/696 (13.1) 1029/27367 (3.8) 3.14 (2.47–3.99) 52/696 (7.5) 130/27367 (0.5) 7.41 (5.21–10.54)
 25.0–29.9 317/1082 (29.3) 7203/39782 (18.1) 2.85 (2.48–3.27) 161/1082 (14.9) 2155/39782 (5.4) 2.46 (2.06–2.95) 90/1082 (8.3) 372/39782 (0.9) 4.91 (3.82–6.31)
  ≥ 30 208/797 (26.1) 5447/25885 (21.0) 1.77 (1.50–2.09) 120/797 (15.1) 2120/25885 (8.2) 1.57 (1.28–1.93) 50/797 (6.3) 462/25885 (1.8) 1.88 (1.37–2.57)
Smoking
 Never 325/1287 (25.3) 9076/48823 (18.6) 2.43 (2.12–2.78) 162/1287 (12.6) 2460/48823 (5.0) 2.33 (1.95–2.78) 79/1287 (6.1) 358/48823 (0.7) 4.05 (3.11–5.27)
 Ever 381/1296 (29.4) 8033/44200 (18.2) 2.51 (2.21–2.85) 211/1296 (16.3) 2857/44200 (6.5) 2.09 (1.78–2.45) 115/1296 (8.9) 613/44200 (1.4) 3.57 (2.87–4.44)
Alcohol use
 Never 48/176 (27.3) 1072/4420 (24.3) 1.75 (1.22–2.51) 30/176 (17.0) 381/4420 (8.6) 1.81 (1.18–2.78) 6/176 (3.4) 79/4420 (1.8) 0.99 (0.41–2.36)
 Previous 63/182 (34.6) 693/3534 (19.6) 2.34 (1.68–3.24) 41/182 (22.5) 315/3534 (8.9) 2.13 (1.45–3.14) 20/182 (11.0) 72/3534 (2.0) 3.58 (2.05–6.24)
 Current 602/2237 (26.9) 15,385/85364 (18.0) 2.55 (2.31–2.82) 305/2237 (13.6) 4643/85364 (5.4) 2.23 (1.96–2.54) 168/2237 (7.5) 824/85364 (1.0) 4.15 (3.47–4.98)
Annual household income, £
  < 18,000 279/909 (30.7) 3501/18534 (18.9) 2.44 (2.10–2.84) 158/909 (17.4) 1490/18534 (8.0) 2.11 (1.75–2.54) 75/909 (8.3) 368/18534 (2.0) 3.05 (2.33–3.99)
 18,000-51,999 197/846 (23.3) 7597/40269 (18.9) 2.28 (1.93–2.70) 94/846 (11.1) 2120/40269 (5.3) 2.21 (1.77–2.77) 52/846 (6.1) 335/40269 (0.8) 4.44 (3.25–6.07)
  > 52,000 45/218 (20.6) 3560/20178 (17.6) 2.13 (1.52–3.00) 15/218 (6.9) 761/20178 (3.8) 1.84 (1.07–3.16) 15/218 (6.9) 81/20178 (0.4) 8.61 (4.69–15.78)
Educational attainment
 University degree 115/544 (21.1) 4307/28109 (15.3) 2.38 (1.92–2.96) 66/544 (12.1) 1170/28109 (4.2) 2.76 (2.10–3.64) 32/544 (5.9) 186/28109 (0.7) 4.70 (3.14–7.04)
 Without University degree 290/1106 (26.2) 9310/46981 (19.8) 2.45 (2.13–2.83) 139/1106 (12.6) 2639/46981 (5.6) 2.21 (1.83–2.67) 81/1106 (7.3) 413/46981 (0.9) 4.59 (3.55–5.95)
Charlson Comorbidity Index
 0 184/678 (27.1) 10,422/51302 (20.3) 2.59 (2.17–3.09) 80/678 (11.8) 2264/51302 (4.4) 3.17 (2.49–4.05) 46/678 (6.8) 238/51302 (0.5) 8.21 (5.82–11.57)
 1 122/485 (25.2) 2760/15181 (18.2) 2.21 (1.78–2.75) 59/485 (12.2) 933/15181 (6.1) 2.22 (1.67–2.96) 31/485 (6.4) 157/15181 (1.0) 4.81 (3.18–7.28)
  ≥ 2 412/1454 (28.3) 4038/27175 (14.9) 2.33 (2.06–2.64) 240/1454 (16.5) 2173/27175 (8.0) 1.90 (1.64–2.21) 118/1454 (8.1) 591/27175 (2.2) 2.85 (2.30–3.52)
Calendar period
 Before April 26th 2020 162/258 (62.8) 1218/2353 (51.8) 1.49 (1.13–1.97) 106/258 (41.1) 1030/2353 (43.8) 0.77 (0.59–1.02) 87/258 (33.7) 295/2353 (12.5) 2.19 (1.61–2.97)
 April 27th 2020 to July 6th 2020 101/427 (23.7) 630/7456 (8.4) 4.00 (3.11–5.15) 47/427 (11.0) 325/7456 (4.4) 2.42 (1.73–3.39) 20/427 (4.7) 58/7456 (0.8) 4.02 (2.33–6.93)
 July 7th 2020 to Dec 16th 2020 226/1040 (21.7) 7060/35252 (20.0) 1.72 (1.47–2.01) 117/1040 (11.2) 1874/35252 (5.3) 1.85 (1.50–2.27) 41/1040 (3.9) 277/35252 (0.8) 2.46 (1.74–3.49)
 Dec 17th 2020 onward 229/892 (25.7) 8312/48597 (17.1) 2.52 (2.15–2.96) 109/892 (12.2) 2141/48597 (4.4) 2.27 (1.83–2.82) 47/892 (5.3) 356/48597 (0.7) 3.42 (2.47–4.75)
  1. Odds Ratio (95%) were derived from logistic regression models, which were adjusted for birth year, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, Townsend deprivation index, annual household income, educational attainment, and Charlson Comorbidity Index