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Table 3 Adjusted mean scores on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency measures for all tumour patients and DACT patients

From: Verbal fluency as a quick and simple tool to help in deciding when to refer patients with a possible brain tumour

  Patients (N = 180) Controls (N = 90) Mean diff (95% CI) p value Effect Size (Cohen’s d)
Verbal fluency, mean (SE)
Animals
 Total 12.6 (5.21) 17.7 (5.21) -5.1 (-6.32,—3.77)  < 0.001 -0.98
 Mean cluster 1.1 (0.94) 1.7 (0.85) -0.55 (-0.79, -0.32)  < 0.001 -0.62
 Switch 5.6 (3.22) 6.9 (3.22) -1.29 (-2.1,—0.46) 0.002 -0.4
Letter P
 Total 8.45 (4.61) 10.99 (4.62) -2.53 (-3.7, -1.35)  < 0.001 -0.55
 Mean cluster 0.29 (0.41) 0.4 (0.38) -0.11 (-0.21, -0.01) 0.025 -0.28
 Switch 6.38 (3.94) 7.68 (3.95) -1.29 (-2.3, -0.29) 0.012 -0.33